Friday, September 23, 2016

CARA MELAKUKAN TAYAMUM YANG BENAR SESUAI SYARIAT

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Tayamum merupakan salah satu alternative berwudhuk dalam ajaran islam, namun hal tersebut bukan bisa lakukan kapan saja karena ada syarat dan ketentuan tertentu seseorang boleh melakukan tayamum. Mungkin kalau untuk negara kita indonesia, sering kita temuai sebagian dari saudara-saudara kita dari kalangan kaum muslimin yang masih asing dengan istilah tayammum atau pada sebagian lainnya hal ini disebabkan karena kurangnya pemahaman mereka terhadap tayamaun, selain ditunjang oleh alam kita yang selalu membuat kita tidak mungkin malaksanakan tayamum. 
cara Melakukan Tayamam dalam Islam
Cara Bertayamum Dalam Islam
Walaupun demikian ada kewajiban bagi setiap orang islam untuk mengetahui hukum islam (Fiqh) secara menyeluruh. Maka disini penulis akan memberikan sedikit gambaran pemahaman dasar tentang tayamum siapa tahu kita bisa mengamalkanya dalam perjalanan yang menggunakan trasportasi udara, disamping kita bisa menunaikan shalat secara penuh, Qasar, ataupun Jamak yang diberikan kemudahan oleh Allah bagi yang dalam keadaan musafir.

(Baca Cara Menjamak Shalat  )
Pengertian Tayamum
Kami mulai pembahasan ini dengan mengemukakan pengertian tayammum. Tayammum secara kebahasaan diartikan sebagai Al Qosdu (القَصْدُ) yang berarti maksud/tujuan. Sedangkan secara pada istilah ( istilah dalam syari’at) adalah sebuah peribadatan kepada Allah berupa mengusap wajah dan kedua tangan dengan menggunakan sho’id yang bersih. Sho’id adalah seluruh permukaan bumi yang dapat digunakan untuk bertayammum baik yang terdapat tanah di atasnya ataupun tidak.
Dalil syar’i tentang Tayamum
Tayammum disyari’atkan dalam islam berdasarkan dalil Al Qur’an, As Sunnah dan Ijma’ (konsensus) kaum muslimin. Adapun dalil dari Al Qur’an adalah firman Allah ‘Azza wa Jalla,
وَإِنْ كُنْتُمْ مَرْضَى أَوْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ أَوْ جَاءَ أَحَدٌ مِنْكُمْ مِنَ الْغَائِطِ أَوْ لَامَسْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ فَلَمْ تَجِدُوا مَاءً فَتَيَمَّمُوا صَعِيدًا طَيِّبًا فَامْسَحُوا بِوُجُوهِكُمْ وَأَيْدِيكُمْ مِنْهُ
“Dan jika kamu sakit atau dalam perjalanan atau kembali dari tempat buang air atau berhubungan badan dengan perempuan, lalu kamu tidak memperoleh air, maka bertayammumlah dengan permukaan bumi yang baik (bersih); sapulah mukamu dan tanganmu dengan tanah itu”. (QS. Al Maidah [5] : 6).
Adapun dalil dari As Sunnah adalah sabda Rasulullah shollallahu ‘alaihi was sallam dari sahabat Hudzaifah Ibnul Yaman rodhiyallahu ‘anhu,
« وَجُعِلَتْ تُرْبَتُهَا لَنَا طَهُورًا إِذَا لَمْ نَجِدِ الْمَاءَ »
“Dijadikan bagi kami (ummat Nabi Muhammad shollallahu ‘alaihi was sallam ) permukaan bumi sebagai thohur/sesuatu yang digunakan untuk besuci (tayammum) jika kami tidak menjumpai air”.
Syarat Tayamum
Tidak ada air dan sudah berusaha mencarinya, tetapi tidak ketemu
berhalangan menggunakan air, seperti sedang sakit, apabila terkena air penyakitnya akan bertambah parah
Telah masuk waktu Shalat
Dengan tanah atau debu yang suci

Cara bertayamum
Berdasarkan penjelasan dari kitab Fiqih islam Seperti (Al Bajuri, Al-Mahali dll) bisa kita ringkaskan bahwa tata cara tayammum adalah sebagai berikut.
  • Memukulkan kedua telapak tangan ke permukaan bumi dengan sekali pukulan kemudian meniupnya.
  • Kemudian menyapu punggung telapak tangan kanan dengan tangan kiri dan sebaliknya.
  • Kemudian menyapu wajah dengan dua telapak tangan.
  • Semua usapan baik ketika mengusap telapak tangan dan wajah dilakukan sekali usapan saja.
  • Bagian tangan yang diusap adalah bagian telapak tangan sampai pergelangan tangan saja atau dengan kata lain tidak sampai siku seperti pada saat wudhu.

Perkara yanga membatalkan Tayammum

·            Segala hal yang membatalkan wudhu
·            Melihat air sebelum shalat, kecuali yang bertayammum karena sakit
·            Murtad, keluar dari Islam


Thursday, September 22, 2016

CARA MENJAMAK SHALAT YANG SESUAI DENGAN TUNTUNAN ISLAM

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Shalat Jamak adalah Shalat yang digabungkan, yaitu mengumpulkan dua shalat fardhu yang dilaksanakan dalam satu waktu. Misalnya, shalat Dzuhur dan Ashar dikerjakan pada waktu Dzuhur atau pada waktu Ashar. Shalat Maghrib dan Isya’ dilaksanakan pada waktu Maghrib atau pada waktu Isya’.Sedangkan Subuh tetap pada waktunya dan tidak boleh digabungkan dengan shalat lain. Shalat Jama' ini boleh dilaksankan karena bebrapa alasan (halangan) berikut ini :
Tuntunan Menjamak shalat
Menjamak Shalat

 a. Dalam perjalanan yang bukan untuk maksiat
 b. Apabila turun hujan lebat
 c. Karena sakit dan takut

 d. Jarak yang ditempuh cukup jauh, yakni kurang lebihnya 81 km (begitulah yang disepakati oleh sebagian Imam Madzhab sebagaimana disebutkan dalam kitab AL-Fikih, Ala al Madzhabhib al Arba’ah, sebagaimana pendapat para ulama madzhab Maliki, Syafi’i dan Hambali).

Tetapi sebagian ulama lagi berpendapat bahwa jarak perjalanan (musafir) itu sekurang-kurangnya dua hari perjalanan kaki atau dua marhalah, yaitu 16 (enam belas) Farsah, sama dengan 138 (seratus tiga puluh delapan) km.

Menjama’ shalat boleh dilakukan oleh siapa saja yang memerlukannya, baik musafir atau bukan dan tidak boleh dilakukan terus menerus tanpa udzur, jadi dilakukan ketika diperlukan saja. (lihat Taudhihul Ahkam, Al Bassam 2/308-310 dan Fiqhus Sunnah 1/316-317).

Syeikhul Islam Ibnu Taimiyah mengatakan bahwa qashar shalat hanya disebabkan oleh safar (bepergian) dan tidak diperbolehkan bagi orang yang tidak safar. Adapun jama’ shalat disebabkan adanya keperluan dan uzur. Apabila seseorang membutuhkannya (adanya suatu keperluan) maka dibolehkan baginya melakukan jama’ shalat dalam suatu perjalanan jarak jauh maupun dekat, demikian pula jama’ shalat juga disebabkan hujan atau sejenisnya, juga bagi seorang yang sedang sakit atau sejenisnya atau sebab-sebab lainnya karena tujuan dari itu semua adalah mengangkat kesulitan yang dihadapi umatnya.” (Majmu’ al Fatawa juz XXII hal 293).

(Baca Ketentuan Shalat Jumat Bagi Musafir) 

Termasuk udzur yang membolehkan seseorang untuk menjama’ shalatnya adalah musafir ketika masih dalam perjalanan dan belum sampai di tempat tujuan (HR. Bukhari, Muslim), turunnya hujan (HR. Muslim, Ibnu Majah dll), dan orang sakit. (Taudhihul Ahkam, Al Bassam 2/310, Al Wajiz, Abdul Adhim bin Badawi Al Khalafi 139-141, Fiqhus Sunnah 1/313-317).

Berkata Imam Nawawi Rahimahullah : ”Sebagian Imam (ulama) berpendapat bahwa seorang yang mukim boleh menjama’ shalatnya apabila diperlukan asalkan tidak dijadikan sebagai kebiasaan.” (lihat Syarah Muslim, imam Nawawi 5/219 dan Al Wajiz fi Fiqhis Sunnah wal Kitabil Aziz 141).

Dari Ibnu Abbas Radhiallahu Anhuma berkata, bahwasanya Rasulullah Shalallahu Alaihi Wassalam menjama’ antara Dhuhur dengan Ashar dan antara Maghrib dengan Isya’ di Madinah tanpa sebab takut dan safar (dalam riwayat lain; tanpa sebab takut dan hujan). Ketika ditanya hal itu kepada Ibnu Abbas beliau menjawab : ”Bahwa Rasulullah Shalallahu ‘Alaihi Wassalam tidak ingin memberatkan umatnya.” (HR.Muslim dll. Lihat Sahihul Jami’ 1070).

Shalat Jama' Dapat Dilaksanakan dengan 2 (dua) Cara :
1. Jama' Taqdim (Jama' yang didahulukan) yaitu menjama' 2 (dua) shalat dan melaksanakannya pada waktu shalat yang pertama. Misalnya shalat Dzuhur dan Ashar dilaksanakan pada waktu Dzuhur atau shalat Maghrib dan Isya’ dilaksanakan pada waktu Maghrib.

Syarat Sah Jama' Taqdim :
a. Berniat menjama' shalat kedua pada shalat pertama
b. Mendahulukan shalat pertama, baru disusul shalat kedua
c. Berurutan, artinya tidak diselingi dengan perbuatan atau perkataan lain, kecuali duduk, iqomat atau sesuatu keperluan yang sangat penting
d. Niat jama' yang dibarengkan dengan Takbiratul Ihram shalat yang pertama, misalnya Dhuhur.

2. Jama' Ta’khir (Jamak yang diakhirkan), yaitu menjamak 2 (dua) shalat dan melaksanakannya pada waktu shalat yang kedua. Misalnya, shalat Dzuhur dan Ashar dilaksanakan pada waktu Ashar atau shalat Maghrib dan shalat Isya’ dilaksanakan pada waktu shalat Isya’.

Syarat Sah Jama' Ta’khir :
a. Niat (melafazhkan pada shalat pertama) yaitu : ”Aku ta’khirkan shalat Dzuhurku diwaktu Ashar.”
b. Berurutan, artinya tidak diselingi dengan perbuatan atau perkataan lain, kecuali duduk, iqomat atau sesuatu keperluan yang sangat penting



Memahami Khasiat Daun Sirih Untuk Kesehatan Kita

Banyak sekali manfaat daun sirih untuk kesehatan dan kebugaran tubuh kita. namun sayang sekali dimasa sekarang kita sering mengabaikan khasiat-khasiat yang terkandung dari obat alami yang secara turun menurun sudah digunakan oleh nenek monyang kita dulu. Sekarang jika kita sedang sakit, kita lebih memilih berobat kedokter atau membeli obat keapotek. Padahal, dilingkungan sekitar kita banyak tumbuh-tumbuhan yang sangat bermanfaat bagi kesehatan kita dan bisa menjadi obat penawar sakit. Daun sirih sejenis tanaman merambat, biasanya daun ini sering dimakan dan dikunyah dengan pinang dan dicampurkan sedikit kapur. Disamping itu kadang kadang  daun sirih ini sering digunakan sebagai obat, untuk sakit mata  dan kekuatan gigi. Jadi walalupun sudah tua  gigi mereka masih tetap kuat.
Manfaat Daun Sirih Untuk Kesehatan
Manfaat Daun Sirih
Daun sirih sebagai tanaman asli Indonesia tumbuh yang merambat, tapi lebih sering bersandar pada batang pohon. Sirih merupakan salah satu jenis daun yang kaya dengan khasiat dan manfaat untuk kesehatan tubuh kita. itu dikarenakan zat-zat yang terkandung di dalam sirih ini merupakan beberapa zat yang memang dibutuhkan oleh tubuh kita untuk menghindari berbagai penyakit. Sejak dulu memang sirih merupakan salah satu tanaman yang memang sering dimanfaatkan untuk mengobati berbagai jenis penyakit.

(Baca Manfaat Buah Manggis Untuk Kesehatan)

(Baca Manfaat Daun Sukun Untuk Kesehatan)

kalau kita membedakan jenis sirih maka kita bisa mengkatagorikan dalam dua katagori yaitu sirih hijau dan sirih merah. Daun sirih memiliki rasa dan aroma khas, yaitu rasa pedas dan bau yang tajam. Rasa dan aroma ini disebabkan dari kavikol dan bethel phenol dalam minyak asitri yang terkandung dalam daun sirih. Selain itu juga, rasa dan aroma ini juga dipengaruhi oleh jenis sirih itu sendiri, umur tanaman, jumlah intensitas sinar matahari yang sampai kebagian daun, serta kondisi dari daun. Secara umum, daun sirih mengandung minyak asitriyang berisikan senyawa kimia seperti fenol serta senyawa turunannya antara lainkavikol, kavibetol, eugenol, karvacol, danalli pyrocatechol. Kandungan daun sirih lainnya yaitu karoren, asamnikotinat, riboflavin, tiamin, vitamin C, gula, tannin, patindanasam amino.

(Baca Empat Kiat Alami Tuntaskan Lemak Dalam Tubuh Kita)


Dari dasar pemahaman nenek monyak kita dulu maka meraka banyak mengunakan daun sirih ini untuk beberap jenis penyakit tertentu diantaranya adalah:

Menghilangkan aroma kurang sedap pada mulut: 4 lembar daun sirih,diseduh air panas, tunggu sekitar 1 jam. Gunakan sebagai obat kumur.

Mengobati pendarahan pada hidung/mimisan: dengan mengunakan 1 lembar daun sirih agak muda dilumatkan , gulung sambil ditekan sehingga keluar minyaknya. Gunakan untuk menyumbat hidung yang mimisan.

Mengurangi air ASI yang berlebihan: ambil daun sirih secukupnya, lalu olesi denga nminya kkelapa, panaskan diatas api sampai layu, hangat-hangat tempelkan diseputar payudara yang bengkak.

Sebagai obat batuk: dengan merebus 15 lembar daun sirih dengan tiga gelas air sampai tersisa ¾ air. Minum air rebusan tersebut dengan menambahkan satu sendok madu. Lakukan hingga batuk hilang.

Sebagai obat bronchitis: biasanya mengunakan daun sirih  sebanyak 7 lembar, gula batu satu potong direbus dengan 2 gelas air sampai tersisa satu gelas. Minum sepertiga gelas dengan aturan 3 x sehari.

Sebagai obat luka bakar: caranya dengan menggunakan peras daun sirih secukupnya, tambahkan madu sedikit, lalu bubuhkan pada bagian kulit tubuh  yang luka akibat terbakar.

Mengobati sariawan: 2 lembar daun sirih segar dicuci, lalu kunyah sampai lumat oleh mulu tanda. Buang ampasnya.

Menghilangkan bau badan: dengan merebus 5 lembar daun sirih dengan 2 gelas air sampai menjadi 1 gls, minum secara rutin tiap hari.

Mengobati bisul: dengan mencuci daun sirih secukupnya, giling hingga halus, lalu bubuhkan pada bisul dan sekelilingnya. Kemudian dibalut. Lakukan 2x sehari.

Obat jerawat: dengan menumbuk 10 lembar daun sirih hingga halus, Seduh dengan dua gelas air panas. Setelah dingin, gunakan air seduhan tersebut untuk mencuci muka. Lakukan sehari 2 sampai 3 kali.

Mengobati keputihan: dengan merebus 10 lembar daun sirih menggunakan 2,5 liter air, angkat, gunakan untuk mencuci bagian kemaluan pada kondisi air hangat .

Mengobati diare: dengan menggunakan 6 lembar daun sirih, 6 biji lada, 1 sdm minyak kelapa. Tumbuk semua bahan sampai halus, gunakan sebagai obat gosok pada bagian perut.

Daun Sirih yang Digunakan sebagai Pembersih Daerah Kewanitaan: dengan rebus daun sirih secukupnya menggunakan 1 gelas air hingga mendidih. Setelah air rebusan dingin lalu diminum, sebaiknya diminum 1x sehari .

Mengatasi mata merah dan gatal: dengan rebus 6 lembar daun sirih menggunakan 1 gelas air hingga mendidih. Setelah air rebusan dingin, gunakan untuk mencuci mata. Lakukan 3x sehari sampai mata  sembuh.



Models of Curriculum innovation and social change

Education is as social process and curriculum is a dynamic process within education and it’s subject to change. Hence, curriculum change can be construed social change. What usually comes to our mind when we think about innovation? Perhaps readers might associate it with the use of technology such as smart board, video conference, computers, or a new way of teaching the language, doing things differently, meaningful and so on. Indeed, the meanings associated with the word innovation are varied, so let us initially, consider innovation in terms of methodology and syllabus design (MARKEE, 2001). Methodologically several methods have been put forward and afterwards the idea of approaches, the post method, ecological approach, etc. All these issues have introduced different ways of looking at the teaching of English and can be considered as mythological innovation in English Language teaching.

Models of Curriculum innovation and social change
Models of Curriculum innovation and social change

Next, let us take into account three similar concepts regarding newness and planning as follows: firstly, Nicholls (1983: 4) defines innovation as “an idea, object or practice perceived as new by an individual or individuals, which is intended to bring out improvement in relation to desired objects, which is fundamental in nature and which is planned and deliberated”, that is, innovation is often further defined as a large-scale (e.g. across whole education system, as will be further discussed in this article). Similarly, Cook (1994: 16) points out that “innovation is understood as a change which introduces something ‘new’, that is, the introduction of an element or a configuration which was not or had not been there before”, which does not necessarily imply something new and lastly, Germaine and Rea-Dickens (1995) state that the change is often described as planned. These definitions present innovation as positive factors in ELT. Despite the positivism of such definitions, innovation has to be carefully analysed and implemented. model of curriculum innovation and Social Change is has a significant related to Contextual Teaching and Learning  and School Based Curriculum Development And Action Research


Rogers and Shoemaker as in Ratnavadivel, (1995). In the survey of diffusion research, “communication of innovation” defines social change as follows:

The process of social change consists of three sequential steps: (1) invention, (2) diffusion, and (3) consequences. Invention is a process by which new ideas are created or developed. Diffusion is a process by which these new ideas are communicated to the members of the social system. Consequences are the changes that occur within a social system as a result of the adoption or rejection of the innovation. Change occurs when new ideas’ use or rejection has an effect. Social change is therefore an effect of communication.

Education is as social process and curriculum is a dynamic process within education and it’s subject to change. Hence, curriculum change can be construed social change. For the purpose of this research, I consider the introduction of KTSP as curriculum change involves social change in the role of school and teachers as educator. Educational change, including change can be in the form of reform and innovation. Reform mandated whereas innovation persuasion (Ratnavadivel, 1995). Both reform and innovation aims to bring about change, for the purpose of this study, KTSP is a reform in that the teachers have to used KTSP as given curriculum. However the implementation of KTSP necessity changes in the role of the school and teachers. The teachers have to be a more active role as curriculum developers. This is innovation of the form of SBCD.   In indonesia we may say that KTP is a reform of SBCD, it is known well as  KTSP as a Form  of SBCD

Davis, Rhodes et al: 1998, as in Tatnall, (2000:35) state that Curriculum innovation does not, however, differ fundamentally from other forms of change. And all change is seen to cause some anxiety, struggle and loss to individual concerned (Maris 1975). Several scholars have come up with models of how people handle and react to change, and these models are useful in suggesting ways in which change can effectively be implemented by those who are supposed to take responsible in managing curriculum.  For instance, Havelock classified three classifications of change models and utilization process. His classification comprises a “Research, Development and Diffusion” model, a “Social Interaction” model, and a “Problem Solving” model. In this study, I would like to analyze the change management model brought about by KTSP in relation to Havelock classification of change models. For that, I would now elaborate the three models:

1. The Research Development and Diffusion (RD&D) Model.
The first model referred to as research, development, and diffusion (RDD) reflected the attitude that if research is made known and presented in the right way, targeted audiences would use it. This model involves a sequence of research, development, and packaging activities prior to dissemination, large-scale planning, and division of labor, separation of roles and functions, and evaluation, (Glaser, as in Jennifer).

Havelock as in Morrish, (1976:119), has listed the model of characteristic in this RD&D.
(i), the model assumes that development and diffusion should be a rational process, that there should be a rational sequence of activities which moved from research to development to packaging before dissemination takes place. (ii). the model implies that there has to be planning on a really massive scale. All these activities of research development must be co-ordinates and a logical relationship establish between them. (III), there must be a division of labor and a careful separation of rule and function. (iv), there is a assumption of a more or less clearly defined audience, a specified passive consumer willing to accept the innovation if it is delivered on the right channel, in the correct manner, and at the right time.  

This RD&D model is a linear model. It begins with the research product and its packaging rather than the ultimate user and their needs. The RD&D model assumes that changing curriculum is an orderly, planned sequence in which experts assist in identifying a problem, finding a solution and then diffusion for distributing the innovation and installing it in target system. This models do not accommodating the interest and wishes of individual teachers or the characteristic of particular school in which the innovation might be used. The receiver/teachers, just receive the innovation and to be experienced about the development of this curriculum model. According to Kelly (2004:108), he assumes that the developer in RD&D model just identified the problem and a receiver who is essentially a passive recipient of the innovation developed to resolve that problem. The receiver remains passive because the initiative is taken by the researchers, the developers and the disseminators. It is a product embodying solution, rather than the hypotheses or ideas behind those product, which is are being tested. The main concern is getting the product “right” and the marketing it (Stenhouse 1975, as in Ratnavadivel, 67:1995)

This model also works on the top-down ‘target system” has come under some heavy criticisms. (Skillbeck 1984:97) states that there has been a great deal of criticism of the RD&D model, in the form we have been examining, applied to curriculum development and educational reform generally. This range from dissatisfaction with its apparent neglect of school utilization of new resources and the implementation of change

2. The Social Interaction Model.
According to Havelock as in Ratnavadivel, (1995)
An innovation is presented or brought to attention of a potential receiver population. The receiver and the receiver needs are determined exclusively by the sender. The receiver is supposed to react to the new information, and the nature of his reaction determines whether or not subsequent stages will occur. If awareness is followed by an expression of interest, he is launched on a series of stage which terminate with the acceptance or rejection of the innovation. The diffusion of innovation depends greatly upon the channels of communication within the receiver group, since information is transmitted primarily through the social interaction of the group members. 

The social interaction model focuses on human relationships and influencing strategies at each stage of the dissemination and adoption processes. Social Interaction model places a great stress on the social interaction between members of the adopting group, and it focuses on the diffusion of ideas and flow of messages from person to person rather than the marketing of product. This model also limited the need of consumers, because it is determinate by central planner/agency. The SI model has been criticized as a top-down model in that the need of receiver is identified by the central planner and not the teachers as the receivers of innovation at school level or in the case of teacher training, the trainer/instructor would be better positioned to identify the receivers’ need in terms of the effectiveness of curriculum implementation at school level.

Ratnavadivel, (1995:68), assumes that this model will suffice for the central agency to act a service agency that only needs to draw on and disseminate expertise that is already available in system and that the teachers or trainers will then be able to sustain the change via interaction within them and with minimum support from center agency/planner. However it seems to neglect the many constraints and inadequacies inherent and experienced by local groups. If the diffusion of the innovation depends upon the channels of communication within the receiver groups, the crucial question that needs to asked is whether and what sort of communication channels are available for diffusion to occur in such model.

3. Problem Solving Model
The third is Problem solving. Generally, in the problem solving model a problem exists, a decision for making the decision. The pending decision drives the search for knowledge and subsequent application of that knowledge. The problem is identified by costumer and the process of innovation is initiated by them. According to MacDonald and Walker in Ratnavadivel, (1995:69). The receiver (an individual or group) initiates the process of change by identifying an area of concern or sensing a need for change. Once the problem area is identified, the receiver undertakes to alter the situation either trough his own efforts, or by recruiting suitable outside assistance. Whereas the receiver in the S-I and RD&D model is passive, the receiver in the P-S model is actively involved in finding an innovation to solve his own problem. Specifically what the new input will be is determined largely by the receiver himself; the relationship between sender and receiver is one of collaboration it is here called the “client system”. The client system may range in size from an individual person to an entire nation.    

This model gives the responsibility for change to the costumers, and emphasizes on the need of users. Teachers at the school determine their problems and then make decision about what kind of curriculum innovation to make and how to implement it. It assumes that the teachers at school level will be able to analysis of the needs, diagnosis the problems, search and get the ideas, get the solution (innovation) and evaluation. On the other hands, this model give the freedom to the teachers to create their curriculum be based on their concern, such social culture, environment and the need of society, at glance we may assume that this model looks like school based curriculum development model.  Kelly states that;

The relationship between the consumer and the external support agent is one of mutual collaboration rather than that of the receiver and the sender of message; and the whole process is personalized to the point where it has to be recognized that this not a model of mass dissemination, since the solution that is devised for the problem need not be seen as solving the problem of the consumers. In short, it might be fairly claimed that this is not a model of dissemination at all but rather than a model for school-based curriculum, A.V Kelly (2004:109).

On the other hand, the problem solving model is more popular in the country that has decentralization education system, we may see that the implementation of school development project within last two decades was dominated by PS model. We can find examples of innovation-oriented user in the field, where teachers and students as the main consumers. Many of the methodologies that have been used in the education system based on the teachers experiences at school level. For instance, the various methods of teaching, principle of school and educational work are based on the nearest environment. The problem that may occur in this model is whether the teachers are able to acquire sufficient capability to do that, because the lack of available information for the teachers can spoil the effects of this model. So this model still needs sustained training from the agency/planner to educate the teacher as the evaluation of the effectiveness of the implementation this model. However Stenhouse (1975:220, as referenced in Ratnavadivel 1995:69), criticizes it on the grounds that it is still emphasizes solution and that:

There is a continual emphasis on the use of expertise by school s to solve specific problems rather than to generate their own expertise in problem solving.

Wednesday, September 21, 2016

Contextual Teaching and learning (CTL)

1. The Basic Understanding of Contextual Teaching Learning.
Nur Hadi et all(2004) The philosophy of CTL was rooted from progressivisms of John Dewey. John Dewey, an expert of classical education proposed the theory of curriculum and teaching methodology related to the students’ experience and interest. Principally, the students will learn effectively if they can make a connection between what they are learning with the experience they had, and also they actively involved in learning process in the classroom. John Dewey, as quoted by Donald freeman, said that,. what an individual has learned in the way of knowledge and skills in one situation becomes an instrument of understanding and dealing effectively with the situation which follows. 

Contextual Teaching and learning (CTL)
Contextual Teaching and learning (CTL)


The process goes on as long as life and learning continue. The theory of Cognitivisme also influenced the philosophy of CTL. The students will learn so well if they actively involve in the classroom activities and have a chance to inquiry it by their selves. Students will show their learning achievement through the real things that they can do. Learning is regarded as an effort or intellectual activity for developing their idea through introspection activity.

Based on two theories above, the CTL philosophy was developed. CTL is a proven concept that incorporates much of the most recent research in cognitive science. It is also a reaction to the essentially behaviorist theory that have dominated American education for many decades. CTL is promoted as the alternative for the new learning strategy. CTL emphasize the learning process through .constructing. not memorizing and teaching is interpreted as an activity of inquiring process not only transferring knowledge to the students. In CTL, student are expected to develop their own understanding from their past experience or knowledge (assimilation). It is important because our brain or human mind functioned as the instrument for interpreting knowledge so that it will have a unique sense. Meanwhile, several attempts have been made to define the meaning of CTL method. In the process of searching the meaning of CTL, writer has found several definitions about it from different resources.

Johnson defines CTL as follows: CTL is an educational process that aims to help student see meaning in the academic subject with the context of their daily lives, that is, with the context of their personal, social, and cultural circumstances. To achieve this aim, the system encompasses the following eight components: making meaningful connections, doing significant work, self-regulated learning, collaborating, critical and creative thinking, nurturing the individual, reaching high standards, and using authentic assessments.


In addition, Berns and Errickson stated that, Contextual teaching and learning is a conception of teaching and learning that helps teachers relate subject matter content to real world situations and motivates students to make connections between knowledge and its applications to their lives as family members, citizens, and workers and engage in the hard work that learning requires. Meanwhile, The Washington State Consortium for Contextual Teaching and Learning, as cited in Nurhadi, formulate the definition of CTL as follows, Contextual teaching is teaching that enables students to reinforce, expand, and apply their academic knowledge and skills in a variety of in-school and out-of school settings in order to solve the stimulated or real-world problems. Based on the previous four definitions, the writer concludes that CTL is the way or the concept of teaching that help teacher and students to relate subject matter to the real life situation and motivate student to connect and apply all aspect of learning into their role in real life. When we talked about context, most people say that it related to their social life. In the classroom teaching, CTL means teacher should present the student real world inside the classroom. Johnson, as quoted by Nurhadi, characterizes CTL into eight important elements as follows:

1. Making Meaningful Connections
Students can organize themselves as learners, who learn actively in improving their interest individually, person who can work individually or collectively in a group, and a person who can do learning by doing

2. Doing Significant Work
Student can make relationship among schools and the various existing contexts in the real world as business maker and as a citizen

3. Self-Regulated Learning
Students do the significant work; it has purpose, it has connection with others, it has connection with decision making and it has the concrete results or products

4. Collaborating
Students are able to work together. The teacher helps students in order to work effectively in a group and teacher helps them to understand the way how to persuade and communicate each others.

5. Critical and Creative Thinking
Students are able to apply higher level thinking critically and effectively. They are able to analyze, to synthesize, to tackle the problem, to make a decision and to think logically.

6. Nurturing the Individual
Students carry on their selves, understand, give attention, posses high wishes, motivate and empower themselves. Students can’t get the success without the support from adult people. Students should respect their companion and adult person.

7. Reaching High Standards
Students know and reach the high standard. It identifies their purposes and motivates them to reach it. Teacher shows to students how to reach what called .excellent.

8. Using Authentic Assessments
Students use academic knowledge in the real world context to the meaningful purposes. For example, students may describe the academic information that have learnt in subject of science, health, education, math, and English subject by designing a car, planning the school, or making the serving of human emotion or telling their  experience.

These eight characteristics make CTL different from other methods. These Characteristics became the main components in applying CTL method. It is also clearly seen that these eight characteristics asks the students for actively involving in classroom activity. Collaborating, nurturing the individual and creative and critical Thinking ask the students to responsible for their own learning. The role of teacher in CTL is to facilitate student to find the fact or the meaning, concept, or principles for their selves. Once these eight characteristics applied in classroom, it will help both students and teachers in creating a good atmosphere where the learners have a great responsibility in achieving their success in leaning. 

2. The Principle of CTL

1. Constructivism
Constructivism is the foundation of CTL. The basic premise is that an individual learner must actively .build. knowledge and skills. However, all advocates of constructivism agree that it is the individual.s processing of stimuli from the environment and the resulting cognitive structure that produce adaptive behavior rather than the stimuli themselves. In the classroom teaching learning process, the application of constructivism are applied in five step of learning that are activating knowledge, acquiring knowledge, understanding knowledge, applying knowledge and reflecting on knowledge. The constructivism paradigm has led us to understand how learning can be facilitated through certain types of engaging, constructive activities. This model of learning emphasizes meaning making through active participation in situated context socially, culturally, historically, and politically.

2. Inquiry
Basically, inquiry is a complex idea that means many things to many people in any contexts. Inquiry is asking, asking something valuable that related to the topic discussed. Inquiry is defined as .a seeking for truth, information or knowledge seeking information by questioning. in applying inquiry activity in the classroom teaching, there are several steps that should be followed that are formulating problem, collecting data through observation, analyzing and presenting data (through written form, picture, report and table) and finally, communicating and presenting the result of data to the readers, classmates, and the other audients

3. Questioning
Questioning is the mother of contextual teaching and learning, the beginning of knowledge, the heart of knowledge and the important aspect of learning. Sadker and Sadker, as quoted by Nurhadi, mentioned the important of questioning technique in classroom teaching. They said,
To question well is to teach well. In the skillful use of the question more than anything else lies fine art of teaching; for in it we have the guide to\ clear and vivid ideas, and the quick spur of imagination, the stimulus to thought, the incentive to action. What is in a question, you ask? Everything. It is the way of evoking stimulating response or stultifying inquiry. It is in essence, the very core of teaching. The art of questioning is the art of guide learning35 Sometimes, the teacher asks to the students before, during and after the lesson. At other times, they are posed effectively by the students to focus their own lesson, keep them engaged and help them monitor their understanding of what was learned. In a productive teaching learning, questioning activity are useful for checking students comprehension, solving problem faced by students, stimulating responses to the students, measuring students’ curiosity, focusing student attention, and refreshing students prior knowledge.

4. Learning Community
In learning community, the result of learning can be gotten from gathering others and also can be taken from sharing with friends, other groups, and between make out person and not. Actually, learning community has the meaning as follows: 1).Group of learning which communicate to share the idea and experience, 2).Working together to solve the problem. 3) The responsibility of each member of learning group. It is sometimes forgotten that language classes operate as communities, each within its own collection of shared understandings that have been build up over time. The overall character or each language class is created, developed, and maintained by everyone in room. Each class member has a specific role to play, even those with ostensibly low profile such as .onlooker. or .observer. (noticing what is going on), .knower. (being privy to shared class understanding) and follower (reacting in the same way as everyone else to certain teacher or student initiatives).

5. Modeling
Basically, modeling is verbalization of ideas, teacher demonstrates to students to study and acting what the teacher need to be implemented by students. Modeling activity can be summarized into demonstrates the teacher’s opinion and demonstrates how does the teacher want the student to learn.

6. Reflections
Reflection is the ways of thinking about what the students have learned and thinking about what the students have done in the past. Reflection is figuration of activity and knowledge that just have received. Teacher need to do the reflections in the end of teaching learning process. In the end of teaching learning process, teacher spends a little time and ask student to do the reflection. The realization of reflection can be done by giving direct statement about the information that acquired in the lesson, some notes or journal on student book, some impression and suggestion from students about the learning process and discussion.

7. Authentic Assessment
Authentic assessment is a procedure of achievement in the CTL. Assessments of students. performance can come from the teacher and the students. Authentic assessment is the process of collecting the data that can give the description of student learning development. In the process of learning, not only the teacher that can be placed to provide accurate assessments of students. performance, but also students can be extremely effective at monitoring and judging their own language production. They frequently have a very clear idea of how well they are doing or have done, and if we help them to develop this awareness, we can greatly enhance learning. Meanwhile, authentic assessment has some characteristics that are :(a) Involves real world experience, (b) Allows access to information, (c) Encourages the use of computer, dictionary and human resources, (d) Engages the students by relevance, (e) Uses open-ended format, (f) Includes self-assessment and reflection, (g) Warrant effort and practice, (h) Identifies strength to enable students to show what they can do and (i) Make assessment criteria clearer to students. Essentially, the question that needs to answer by authentic assessment is. Does the students learn something?. not .What have they already known?. So, the students are assessed through many ways, not only assessed their examination test.

References
1 Anonymous, Kurikulum Muatan Lokal untuk Sekolah Dasar, (Jakarta: Depdikbud,
1994), p. 30
2 Jack C. Richards, Developing Classroom Speaking Activities: From Theory to Practice,
Https://www.professorjackrichard.com/developing-classoom-speaking-activities.pdf, p.1.
Accessed on November 1, 2007
3 Marianne Celce-Murcia, Teaching English As A Second or Foreign Language (Boston:
Heinly and Heinle, a Division of Thomson Learning,inc.2001) p.104
4 Depatemen Pendidikan Nasional, Kurrikulum 2004, Standar Kompetensi Bahasa
Inggris, Sekolah Menengah Atas dan Madrasah Aliyah, (Jakarta:2003), p.142 

Monday, September 19, 2016

Kebijakan Baru Sertifikasi Guru 2016

Assalamualaikum...wr..wb..Bapak dan Ibu Guru semuanya, dan Salam sejahtera untuk Kita semua semoga tetap dalam Keadaan Sehat dan Baik insyaallah.berdasarkan rilis dari laman web resmi KementerianPendidikan Kemendikbud, secara resmi di umumkan mengenai  Dua Kebijakan Baru dalam Program sertifikasi Guru 2016.

Kebijakan Baru Sertifikasi 2016
Kebijakan Baru Sertifikasi 2016
Tahun ini Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan (Kemendikbud) akan menerapkan dua kebijakan baru program sertifikasi guru melalui Pendidikan dan Latihan Profesi Guru (PLPG) 2016.

Seperti yang diungkap oleh Direktur Jenderal Guru dan Tenaga Kependidikan (Dirjen GTK) Kemendikbud, Sumarna Surapranata di Kantor Kemendikbud, Senayan, Jakarta Dua kebijakan baru tersebut yakni, peningkatan batas nilai syarat kelulusan dan ketentuan dapat mengulang ujian sertifikasi bagi guru yang tidak lulus ujian,". Adapun kebijakan tersebut adalah

1. Batas Nilai Kelulusan Ujian Sertifikasi.

Untuk nilai  sertifikasi tahun ini guru harus bisa mendapatkan nilai minimal 80 dari Nilai Ujian Tes Nasional (UTN) ini sesuai dengan pembicaraan  Direktur Jenderal Guru dan Tenaga Kependidikan di Kantor Kemendikbud, Jakarta, Jumat (16/9/2016). ”kelulusan guru dalam ujian sertifikasi minimal harus 80 dari total nilai 100. “Kalau tahun lalu minimal 42 (sudah lulus),” ujarnya

Disamping itu ia juga memnambahkan jika  kebijakan itu diterapkan berdasarkan arahan Wakil Presiden Jusuf Kalla dan Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan (Mendikbud) Muhadjir Effendy setelah mendapatkan laporan dari Bank Dunia. Pria yang akrab disapa Pranata itu menjelaskan, Bank Dunia merilis hasil penelitiannya yang menemukan data bahwa tidak ada perbedaan yang signifikan
dalam nilai uji kompetensi guru (UKG) antara guru yang sudah tersertifikasi dengan guru yang belum tersertifikasi.


2. Kebijakan dapat mengikuti ujian ulang empat kali tanpa mengulang PLPG.


Dalam hal ujian sertifikasi, seorang peserta dapat mengikuti ujian ulangan jika tidak lulus pada ujian pertama tanpa menulang PLPG, ini sesuai dengan yang disampaikan oleh Kependidikan (Dirjen GTK) Kemendikbud, Sumarna Surapranata. “Tahun ini bisa mengulang (ujian), tidak perlu PLPG lagi, cukup belajar mandiri, yang kita gerakkan sebagai program Guru Pembelajar,” tuturnya.
Pranata juga menambahkan, guru cukup mengikuti PLPG sebanyak satu kali. Jika guru tersebut tidak lulus ujian sertifikasi, maka dapat mengikuti ujian lagi maksimal empat kali tanpa harus mengulang PLPG. Ujian sertifikasi guru dilaksanakan dua kali dalam satu tahun.

“Jadi sistemnya seperti TOEFL. Kalau tidak lulus bisa mengulang lagi di lembaga yang terakreditasi, dalam hal ini LPTK (Lembaga Pendidikan dan Tenaga Kependidikan). Jadi guru      bebasbelajar di mana saja dan dengan siapapun untuk mengulang ujian sertifikasi,” ujarnya.

Menurut Pranata, sosialisasi kebijakan baru program sertifikasi guru itu sudah dilakukan sejak   tahun lalu ke guru-guru dan rektor-rektor PTN yang jadi LPTK. Hal tersebut diakui Rektor Universitas Negeri Medan, Syawal Gultom. “Sejak bulan Maret lalu sudah kami sampaikan ke guru, termasuk kurikulumnya, apa saja yang harus dipelajari,” katanya. Hal senada juga diungkapkan Rektor Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Rochmat Wahab. “Karena sudah jadi konvensi bersama, akan kita jalankan,” ujarnya.


PLPG tahun 2016 akan diselenggarakan mulai Oktober 2016, dan diharapkan kelulusan guru-guru peserta PLPG 2016 akan rampung pada Desember 2016. Tahun ini PLPG akan diikuti 69.259 guru, baik yang diangkat sebelum tahun 2005, maupun setelah tahun 2005

semoga aturan baru ini bisa lebih diutamakan untuk meningkatkan mutu pendidikan kedepan, karena sekarang ini kita melihat jika mutu pendidikan kita masih hanya tinggi pencapaiannya di sekitar perkotaan saja kalau kebagian pedalaman masih sangat jauh ketinggalan mutunya jika dibandingkan dengan perkotaan. semoga saja kesenjangan ini bisa sedikit dikurangggi kedepan dengan adanya program peningkatan mutu guru oleh pemerintah terutama pihak Kemeterian Pendidikan Nasional/

Sumber laman web resmi Kementerian Pendidikan Kemendikbud