Friday, May 12, 2017

The Curriculum Objective

The Curriculum Objective
We know that education is really important for human being, almost in every country has instructed its’ citizen to participate in educational activities, through various technical and method that is related to the state philosophy, socio-political conditions, resource capacity and need of each environment. However, in terms of determining the purpose of education is basically the same. 
The Curriculum Objective
The Curriculum Objective
The educational objective is a really essential part in educational process, because it is as the way to manage the objective of Nation. Within the context of education objective, it is necessary to formulate objectives that will indicate in more specific terms the outcome of curriculum or of project being considered. Basically the aim of education is focused on cognitive domain, effective domain, and psychomotor domain, it will be described below:

A. Domain Cognitive 
The first Cognitive domain, this domain is purposed to develop students’ thinking and intellectual, according to Bloom this domain consists of six elements, (knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, Synthesis, and evaluation).
1. Knowledge 
According to Browner as quoted in Gerals S. Hanna and Peggy A. Dettmer, (2004:25)., this aspect includes the ability to recall or recognize facts, principles, methods and the like. Little is demanded besides bringing to mind the materials as it was presented. This category has been seriously overemphasized in class room teaching and testing. Although knowledge is needed for all categories of the taxonomy, it alone has mere recall as it major process.   

2. Comprehension. 
Comprehension is Understand the meaning, translation, interpolation, and interpretation of instructions and problems. State a problem in one's own words. According to Gerals S. Hanna and Peggy A. Dettmer, (2004:25). This domain is to address the ability of students to grasp the meaning of message, to paraphrase, to explain or summarizes in ones’ words, and to translate among symbols, picture and so forth.   

3. Application.
Application is Use a concept in a new situation or unprompted use of an abstraction applies what was learned in the classroom into level situations in the work place. Gerals S. Hanna & Peggy A. Dettmer, (2004:26), states that this domain aspect includes use of ideas, rules, or principles in new situation. Most of what is learned is intended for application to problem situation in real life.

4. Analysis.
Analysis is the Separating material or concepts into component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. Distinguishing between facts and inferences. Gerals S. Hanna & Peggy A. Dettmer, (2004:26), state analysis includes the ability of students in taking the component parts of a concept or message and show the relationship among the parts. Analysis is an aid to fuller understanding or a prelude to evaluation of material. 

5. Synthesis 
Synthetic means to build up a structure or pattern from diverse elements. Put parts together to form a whole, with emphasis on creating a new meaning or structure. Gerals S. Hanna & Peggy A. Dettmer, (2004:26) states that this category addresses the ability of students to put elements together into coherent whole in ways not experience by that individual before. Even so, this process is not truly free creative expression because it typically occurs within limits set by the problems, materials, or methodological framework.   
    
6. Evaluation 
Shortly evaluation means make judgments about the value of ideas or materials. Gerals S. Hanna and Peggy A. Dettmer, (2004:26), states that this ability to assess the value of goals, ideas, methods, products, materials, and such and to make purposeful judgment about the students.     

B. Domain Affective 
Second is domain effective, the domain effective is purposed to develop the students, spiritual and behavior, Krathwohl and coworkers, as referenced in Kenneth T Henson (2001:225) developed a system know as the effective domain to categorize value. The outcome was the following hierarchy of objectives in the affective domain such as Receiving, Responding, valuing, organizing, and characterizing. They are as follows: 

1. Receiving 
Receiving means Awareness, willingness to hear, and selected attention. Gerals S. Hanna & Peggy A. Dettmer, (2004:29) state that receiving is the being aware of something in the environment and passively attending to it.  

2. Responding 
Responding means Active participation on the part of the learners. Attends and reacts to a particular phenomenon. Learning outcomes may emphasize compliance in responding, willingness to respond, or satisfaction in responding (motivation).  Gerals S. Hanna & Peggy A. Dettmer, (2004:29) states that responding is the reacting to the environment and responding to stimuli. For instance explaining issues in civil war, moving into position in playing volley ball. 

3. Valuing. 
Valuing means the worth or value a person attaches to a particular object, phenomenon, or behavior. This ranges from simple acceptance to the more complex state of commitment. Valuing is based on the internalization of a set of specified values, while clues to these values are expressed in the learner's overt behavior and are often identifiable. Gerals S. Hanna & Peggy A. Dettmer, (2004:29) states that demonstrating commitment by voluntary responding and actively seeking out ways to respond, for example the implementation of the coach game. 
  
4. Organization. 
Organizing means Organizes values into priorities by contrasting different values, resolving conflicts between them, and creating an unique value system.  The emphasis is on comparing, relating, and synthesizing values. Gerals S. Hanna and Peggy A. Dettmer, (2004:29) states that organization is a conceptualizing and integrating knowledge and applying information to value system. For instance using text materials, class discussion etc.   

5. Characterization. 
Characterization means has a value system that controls their behavior. The behavior is pervasive, consistent, predictable, and most importantly, characteristic of the learner. Instructional objectives are concerned with the student's general patterns of adjustment (personal, social, emotional). Gerals S. Hanna & Peggy A. Dettmer, (2004:29) states that characterization is organizing the value into a whole and acting in accordance with the new require values and beliefs. For instance voluntary practicing learned tips to safe driving and follow the tips when not being observe. 

C. Domain Psychomotor. 
The third is domain psychomotor, this domain is purposed to develop the students’ skill in practicing the knowledge. The psychomotor domain involves the development of physical skills that require coordination of mind body. This domain has always been especially relaxant to such courses as physical education, art, drama, music and vocational course. E. J. Simpson (as cited in Kenneth T Henson, 2001:227), he developed this domain within seven elements, they are Perception, set, guided response, mechanism, complex overt response, adaptation, and origination. 

1. Perception
Perception means the ability to use sensory cues to guide motor activity.  This ranges from sensory stimulation, through cue selection, to translation.

2. Set 
Communicating means Readiness to act. It includes mental, physical, and emotional sets. These three sets are dispositions that predetermine a person's response to different situations (sometimes called mindsets). Hanna & Dettmer, (2004:30) states that being set mentally, emotionally, and physically to take a particular action. 

3. Guided response 
Guided Response means the early stages in learning a complex skill that includes imitation and trial and error. Adequacy of performance is achieved by practicing. Hanna & Dettmer, (2004:30), states guided is imitating and engaging in trial and error. 

4. Mechanism 
Mechanism is the intermediate stage in learning a complex skill. Learned responses have become habitual and the movements can be performed with some confidence and proficiency. 

5. Complex over response 
The skillful performance of psychomotor is acts that involve complex movement patterns. Proficiency is indicated by a quick, accurate, and highly coordinated performance, requiring a minimum of energy. This category includes performing without hesitation, and automatic performance. For example, players are often utter sounds of satisfaction or expletives as soon as they hit a tennis ball or throw a football, because they can tell by the feel of the act what the result will produce. Gerals S. Hanna & Peggy A. Dettmer, (2004:30), sates that Complex over response is performing complex movement efficiently and smoothly. 

6. Adaptation 
Adaptation means skills are well developed and the individual can modify movement patterns to fit special requirements.

7. Origination. 
Origination means creating new movement patterns to fit a particular situation or specific problem. Learning outcomes emphasize creativity based upon highly developed skills

According to Henson (2001:212) he states that education aims are lifetime aspiration that provides long-term direction for students. A good example of education aims is include: health, development of moral character, worthy home membership, citizenship, worthy use of leisure time, vocational efficiency, development of fundamental process.

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