Thursday, September 8, 2016

KTSP as a form of School Based Curriculum Development

In the previous post I already gave the the description of School based Currculum Development, now i would like to see the concept of Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP) in Indonesia  in the concept of SBCD. Curriculum is as basic foundation to determine success or failure of an education in one State.
KTSP as A Form of SBCD
School Based Curriculum Development

(Read School Based Curriculum Development and Action Research)
(Read Factors Influencing The Implementation of Educational Innovation)

Every nation has its’ own curriculum refer to their national educations, goal and philosophy. Such as in Indonesia where Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan (KTSP) refer to decentralization curriculum that give the freedom to every provincial and district government to develop their school curriculum based on their district conditions in order to get the capacity in contributing prosperity and national economic productivity. Brady & Kennedy state:

Government has interests that are largely although not exclusively economic in nature. Charting economic growth and development has become a major preoccupation with government and hence their concern. The nature of school curriculum will determine the knowledge and skills that future citizens will possess and hence their capacity to contribute to the nations’ economy in a productivity way. Off course, governments are interested in more than economic. In general, democratic, government wish to see a community that is socially cohesive, political cohesive, politically literate, culturally sophisticated, tolerant and just. The curriculum can do much to contribute to these objectives as well.  (L Brady & K Kennedy,:1999:7)

In current context of educational initiatives in Indonesia, KTSP does not mean to give authority to becoming places responsible for creating their own curriculum and teaching materials freely. Rather, it means that the schools should refer to contend standard and graduation standard that issued by National Education Standard Board (NESB) in designing school curriculum. In addition the teachers give more autonomy in designing, planning syllabus and lesson plan, and creating educational experiences trough creating, selecting and adapting curriculum materials in the light of their particular situations and needs by referring to the standard mentioned above.

Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP) is the development of Competence-Based Curriculum. KTSP was launched in 2006 by National Education Standard Board (NESB) as a National curriculum institution in Indonesia. The 2006 Curriculum ‘named as KTSP’, developed by schools as unit of education, and it refers to National Education Standards, which is concerned with content standard and graduation  standard as mentioned  in Regulation of the Ministry of National Education number 22 and 23, 2006. School’s curriculum should be in line with the content standard and graduation standard, and guidelines of development standard arranged by National Education Standard Board (NESB) with the following principles; It is centralized to the potency, progress and the needs of the learners and their environment, diversity and integrity, anticipating the development of science, technology and arts, relevant with the need of life, holistic and continuity, lifelong learning, being balance of National and Regional interests. Principally, KTSP is an operational curriculum that is designed and implemented at each educational unit. KTSP is based on the educational purpose at every level of educational units, structure and content of the curriculum, educational calendar, and syllabus (NESB, 2006:5). It means that school and teachers’ authority decide the success of educational aim at school level. On other words, teacher have duties on: (1) constructing and formulating the proper aims, (2) choosing and constructing the right lesson resources according to the needs, interests and children development phase, (3) choosing the method and teaching media that is varied, (4) and constructing the program and the right evaluation. A curriculum is made systematically and detail, which will ease the teacher on its implementation. In that case, the school has the authority to develop the curriculum according to the capability and needs.

KTSP is the general policy ordained by the Curriculum Development Council for schools' consideration in designing of a quality curriculum conducive to effective pupil learning. Schools are encouraged to adapt the National Standard Curriculum to suit their unique contexts. When designing KTSP, schools are advised to observe closely the directions and requirements stipulated by the Curriculum Development Council in the official curriculum documents. Based on careful analysis of pupils’ needs, abilities and interests, schools' ecological contexts, leadership style of the principals and middle management, as well as the readiness of teachers, schools need to employ the most appropriate teaching, learning and assessment strategies and use various learning materials to integrate the teaching-learning-assessment cycle in KTSP.  It is important to ensure that all pupils have equal opportunities participating in rich learning experiences that aim at promoting whole person development and lifelong learning. Bolstad (2004), states it is important to recognize that the “operational space” for SBCD at any given time/place is strongly influenced by wider features of education system, including the structure and structure of the National curriculum, the degree of centralization/decentralization of school decision making, schools’ assessment and reporting requirements, the expected role of teachers in school curriculum development, and the expected or potential role of people curriculum development.