Showing posts with label KURIKULUM DAN PHILOSPHY. Show all posts
Showing posts with label KURIKULUM DAN PHILOSPHY. Show all posts

Friday, May 12, 2017

The Curriculum Objective

The Curriculum Objective
We know that education is really important for human being, almost in every country has instructed its’ citizen to participate in educational activities, through various technical and method that is related to the state philosophy, socio-political conditions, resource capacity and need of each environment. However, in terms of determining the purpose of education is basically the same. 
The Curriculum Objective
The Curriculum Objective
The educational objective is a really essential part in educational process, because it is as the way to manage the objective of Nation. Within the context of education objective, it is necessary to formulate objectives that will indicate in more specific terms the outcome of curriculum or of project being considered. Basically the aim of education is focused on cognitive domain, effective domain, and psychomotor domain, it will be described below:

A. Domain Cognitive 
The first Cognitive domain, this domain is purposed to develop students’ thinking and intellectual, according to Bloom this domain consists of six elements, (knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, Synthesis, and evaluation).
1. Knowledge 
According to Browner as quoted in Gerals S. Hanna and Peggy A. Dettmer, (2004:25)., this aspect includes the ability to recall or recognize facts, principles, methods and the like. Little is demanded besides bringing to mind the materials as it was presented. This category has been seriously overemphasized in class room teaching and testing. Although knowledge is needed for all categories of the taxonomy, it alone has mere recall as it major process.   

2. Comprehension. 
Comprehension is Understand the meaning, translation, interpolation, and interpretation of instructions and problems. State a problem in one's own words. According to Gerals S. Hanna and Peggy A. Dettmer, (2004:25). This domain is to address the ability of students to grasp the meaning of message, to paraphrase, to explain or summarizes in ones’ words, and to translate among symbols, picture and so forth.   

3. Application.
Application is Use a concept in a new situation or unprompted use of an abstraction applies what was learned in the classroom into level situations in the work place. Gerals S. Hanna & Peggy A. Dettmer, (2004:26), states that this domain aspect includes use of ideas, rules, or principles in new situation. Most of what is learned is intended for application to problem situation in real life.

4. Analysis.
Analysis is the Separating material or concepts into component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. Distinguishing between facts and inferences. Gerals S. Hanna & Peggy A. Dettmer, (2004:26), state analysis includes the ability of students in taking the component parts of a concept or message and show the relationship among the parts. Analysis is an aid to fuller understanding or a prelude to evaluation of material. 

5. Synthesis 
Synthetic means to build up a structure or pattern from diverse elements. Put parts together to form a whole, with emphasis on creating a new meaning or structure. Gerals S. Hanna & Peggy A. Dettmer, (2004:26) states that this category addresses the ability of students to put elements together into coherent whole in ways not experience by that individual before. Even so, this process is not truly free creative expression because it typically occurs within limits set by the problems, materials, or methodological framework.   
    
6. Evaluation 
Shortly evaluation means make judgments about the value of ideas or materials. Gerals S. Hanna and Peggy A. Dettmer, (2004:26), states that this ability to assess the value of goals, ideas, methods, products, materials, and such and to make purposeful judgment about the students.     

B. Domain Affective 
Second is domain effective, the domain effective is purposed to develop the students, spiritual and behavior, Krathwohl and coworkers, as referenced in Kenneth T Henson (2001:225) developed a system know as the effective domain to categorize value. The outcome was the following hierarchy of objectives in the affective domain such as Receiving, Responding, valuing, organizing, and characterizing. They are as follows: 

1. Receiving 
Receiving means Awareness, willingness to hear, and selected attention. Gerals S. Hanna & Peggy A. Dettmer, (2004:29) state that receiving is the being aware of something in the environment and passively attending to it.  

2. Responding 
Responding means Active participation on the part of the learners. Attends and reacts to a particular phenomenon. Learning outcomes may emphasize compliance in responding, willingness to respond, or satisfaction in responding (motivation).  Gerals S. Hanna & Peggy A. Dettmer, (2004:29) states that responding is the reacting to the environment and responding to stimuli. For instance explaining issues in civil war, moving into position in playing volley ball. 

3. Valuing. 
Valuing means the worth or value a person attaches to a particular object, phenomenon, or behavior. This ranges from simple acceptance to the more complex state of commitment. Valuing is based on the internalization of a set of specified values, while clues to these values are expressed in the learner's overt behavior and are often identifiable. Gerals S. Hanna & Peggy A. Dettmer, (2004:29) states that demonstrating commitment by voluntary responding and actively seeking out ways to respond, for example the implementation of the coach game. 
  
4. Organization. 
Organizing means Organizes values into priorities by contrasting different values, resolving conflicts between them, and creating an unique value system.  The emphasis is on comparing, relating, and synthesizing values. Gerals S. Hanna and Peggy A. Dettmer, (2004:29) states that organization is a conceptualizing and integrating knowledge and applying information to value system. For instance using text materials, class discussion etc.   

5. Characterization. 
Characterization means has a value system that controls their behavior. The behavior is pervasive, consistent, predictable, and most importantly, characteristic of the learner. Instructional objectives are concerned with the student's general patterns of adjustment (personal, social, emotional). Gerals S. Hanna & Peggy A. Dettmer, (2004:29) states that characterization is organizing the value into a whole and acting in accordance with the new require values and beliefs. For instance voluntary practicing learned tips to safe driving and follow the tips when not being observe. 

C. Domain Psychomotor. 
The third is domain psychomotor, this domain is purposed to develop the students’ skill in practicing the knowledge. The psychomotor domain involves the development of physical skills that require coordination of mind body. This domain has always been especially relaxant to such courses as physical education, art, drama, music and vocational course. E. J. Simpson (as cited in Kenneth T Henson, 2001:227), he developed this domain within seven elements, they are Perception, set, guided response, mechanism, complex overt response, adaptation, and origination. 

1. Perception
Perception means the ability to use sensory cues to guide motor activity.  This ranges from sensory stimulation, through cue selection, to translation.

2. Set 
Communicating means Readiness to act. It includes mental, physical, and emotional sets. These three sets are dispositions that predetermine a person's response to different situations (sometimes called mindsets). Hanna & Dettmer, (2004:30) states that being set mentally, emotionally, and physically to take a particular action. 

3. Guided response 
Guided Response means the early stages in learning a complex skill that includes imitation and trial and error. Adequacy of performance is achieved by practicing. Hanna & Dettmer, (2004:30), states guided is imitating and engaging in trial and error. 

4. Mechanism 
Mechanism is the intermediate stage in learning a complex skill. Learned responses have become habitual and the movements can be performed with some confidence and proficiency. 

5. Complex over response 
The skillful performance of psychomotor is acts that involve complex movement patterns. Proficiency is indicated by a quick, accurate, and highly coordinated performance, requiring a minimum of energy. This category includes performing without hesitation, and automatic performance. For example, players are often utter sounds of satisfaction or expletives as soon as they hit a tennis ball or throw a football, because they can tell by the feel of the act what the result will produce. Gerals S. Hanna & Peggy A. Dettmer, (2004:30), sates that Complex over response is performing complex movement efficiently and smoothly. 

6. Adaptation 
Adaptation means skills are well developed and the individual can modify movement patterns to fit special requirements.

7. Origination. 
Origination means creating new movement patterns to fit a particular situation or specific problem. Learning outcomes emphasize creativity based upon highly developed skills

According to Henson (2001:212) he states that education aims are lifetime aspiration that provides long-term direction for students. A good example of education aims is include: health, development of moral character, worthy home membership, citizenship, worthy use of leisure time, vocational efficiency, development of fundamental process.

Wednesday, April 26, 2017

The Reasons of Educational Reformation in Indonesia

The Reasons of Educational Reformation in Indonesia
There are several significant reasons that indicate necessity of education reform. First, are education access and its implication for improving quality of life. As it is indicated in the contexts of education reform, Indonesia has not fully accomplished universal education at the primary and the secondary levels even though basic education has been improve to 9 years and made compulsory. 
The Reasons of Educational Reformation in Indonesia
The Reasons of Educational Reformation in Indonesia
The dropout rate for each Primary school is also high. The Government is concerned that children who are not enrolled in schools are not being equipped with the necessary skills and knowledge to be productive citizens in the knowledge age. Education has to support economic growth and promote sense of integration of Indonesian archipelago. In Indonesia, education plays an important role to increase individual income, therefore relevancy of education need to be improved. 
Second, is preparing young generation for the knowledge age. The Government recognizes that education is the most effective long-term solution to achieve national development and stability for the nation, to promote diverse local culture and customs by broadening common core elements in curriculum. In addition, education has to prepare young generation to participate in local, national and global economies. In order to prepare young generation to live in knowledge-based economy and democratic society, the youth should have more engagement in building new skills and attitudes needed for work and a social life in the knowledge. Consequently, reform on learning is crucial for providing a foundation for lifelong learning, character building, problem solving and critical thinking; and developing flexibility to manage change. Curriculum reform has to contribute to the foundations for a skilled workforce confident in its ability to compete in future global markets. 

Third, is the need to develop information technology (IT). Up to this moment Indonesia has yet not a clearly insisted on the use of information technology (IT) in its educational policy. The provision of computers and peripherals to schools and IT training for teachers and students are very limited. Because of the knowledge age, IT development has to become a national agenda for education reform despite of our scarcity of resources. 
Four, is implementation regional autonomy. Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 22, 1999, concerning Regional Administration stipulates authority of the regions. Article 7, verse 1 of Law No.22, 1999, states that authority of regions includes authority in all governmental sectors, except authority in foreign policy, defense and security, the administration of justice, monetary and fiscal, and religious affair. The consequent of regional autonomy for education is a district-based education planning, management and quality assurances. This is not a simple shift from a centralized to a decentralized educational planning and practices. The government needs to provide a well-prepared and well-informed district-based education system.

Fifth, is improving madrasahs. The quality of Madrasahs or Islamic religious schools which is part of Indonesian national education system is, in general, lower than regular schools. Besides offering Islamic religious education, madrasahs also provide instruction based-on national curriculum. The national education system has to be reformed in order to include issues on madrasahs education which is held under the Ministry of Religious Affair (MORA). Finally is moral development. Fundamentally, education is about nurturing the whole person. A holistic education encompasses moral, cognitive, physical, social, and esthetic aspects of personal development. In the knowledge age the students need to learn how to be life-long learners, be independent thinkers and innovators. At the same time, students in Indonesia come from different ethnicity, local languages, cultures, customs and religions. They go to schools and share a common experience of growing up together, studying together, playing together, and singing the national anthem together. Although these are precious life experiences which help in building emotional ties, identification, and a sense of commitment to one another as Indonesian citizens, the student needs to value their differences and learn how to live together with their different interests. The development of moral education also needs to include aspects of clean government and good governance.

Pertaning with the strategy, it is could be described bellow:
There are nine strategies for implementation of education reform. These strategies are designed in order to realize educational vision, mission, and objective. The nine educational development strategies, namely the following:
1. The implementation of educational autonomy management, 
2. The Implementation of compulsory education, 
3. The development of competency based curriculum,
4. The implementation of open education system,
5. The improvement of professional development, 
6. The provision of educational school facilities and learning resources,
7. Fair and justice educational finance system 
8. Empowering community participation, and
9. The implementation of assessment and accreditation system which empower students for better quality of learning. 

Monday, April 24, 2017

The Demand on Teacher In Implementing KTSP and Kurikulum 13

The Demand on Teacher In Implementing KTSP and Kurikulum Tiga Belas (K.13)
The most important components in achieving educational objectives are the teacher, so teachers as the one who implement curriculum at the school level should understand the need of curriculum. The changing of curriculum always brings big implications to education, because it not only on how to create teaching activity effectively in the class, but also it includes the understanding of teachers in implementing the curriculum. 
The Demand on Teacher In Implementing KTSP and Kurikulum 13
The Demand on Teacher In Implementing KTSP and Kurikulum 13
The implementation of Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan anda Kurikulum Tiga Belas K.13 demands all of the involved components in this curriculum especially teachers to understand the concept of this curriculum clearly. Honestly, the success or failure the implementation of curriculum is depends on teachers’ ability in actualizes the curriculum in teaching concept. The ability of teaches is concerning with their understanding and skills to implement the curriculum. The demand of KTSP/K.13 on teachers will be described on the following section. 

First,  In developing KTSP/K.13, teachers are expected to understand student potential. They have to know what students have learned , their students' interests, motivations, possible alternative concepts, and different ways of thinking so that students are able to gain knowledge about what they learned. Teachers also need to know how  students to learn best. Teachers are also expected to discover how each student learns and performs and acts as a facilitator, motivator, and mediator in teaching. In the KTSP/K.13, teachers are expected to know about the ability and potential of students, at least cognitive, intelligence, creativity, and physical condition of students. In short the students' knowledge provides an important start of curriculum making which takes into account the class situation. It also provides the necessary conditions for obtaining a "Teach Less Learn More" teaching system that places a high emphasis on student understanding and learning. Besides Curriculum Development is based on the principle that students have a central position to develop the competence to become a man who believes and cautious to God Almighty. Noble, healthy, knowledgeable, competent, creative, independent and become a democratic and responsible society. To support the acquisition of curriculum, the development of curriculum is designed to refer to students' development foundations, needs and  interests of students along with environmental demands. That means that student-centered learning activities.

Second, teachers organizes syllabus and teaching materials, translate and modify the teaching material in the classroom situation. They transform teaching materials in the form of meaningful teaching experiences and meet the students' special needs. Most important of all is teachers need to identify key ideas (concepts, issues and themes) that highlight the specific topics of teaching materail. They also need to know the relationships between the unit and the progress involved in developing the idea so that the topic of teaching material are ablr to be understood by students. In the syllabus oraganizing, the teachers should cooperate with other elements of educational elements in modifying add, subtracting material based on school conditions. Mulyasa, (2008: 135)

Third, in terms of instructional designing, Teachers select materials and models through various teaching resources, and they are expected to plan meaningful and reliable student teaching activities. Curriculum development is run by involving elements of certain elements to ensure the relevancy of education to the needs of life, including social life, business world, and the world of work. Muslich, (2008: 11) says, furthermore, the development of individual skills, thinking skills, social skills, academic skills, and vocational skills is important. Teachers need to monitor the intraction with students in determining what is worthy of the experience.

Fourth, teachers create and maintain a classroom environment that is learner-centered and supports higher order thinking and independent learning. The curriculum was developed by taking into value the diversity of learners' characteristics, local conditions, levels and types of education, and respect and not discriminating against religious differences, ethnics, cultural, customs, socio-economic status, and gender. Muslich, (2008:11) states that the curriculum includes compulsory substance of components of the curriculum, local content, integrated development, and meaningful sustained arrangement among the elements.

Fifth, teachers need to know the contexts of their schools and the educational system. They cannot be concerned predominantly with action relating to how to teach specific topics; they must be concerned about policy issues as well. Curriculum enactment needs to be informed by their understanding of the issues and trends in the broader community and the context in which they work, and by the expressed ideas and concerns of parents, school administrators, and policymakers. 

Sixth, teachers need to understand the competence standard, In National Law Number 19 Year 2005, about National education standard, it mentioned a minimum standard about education system in whole of Indonesian. National education standard consist of content-standard, Process-standard, facilities-standard, management-standard, funding-standard, and education assessment-standard. 

Wednesday, April 19, 2017

Historical Background on Indonesian Educational Reform

A. Historical background on Indonesian education reform
The present system of educational reform and practice cannot be detached from its historical contexts. The development of Indonesian modern people is intermingled by the restoration efforts in replacing the loss of valuable traditional values, gaining national economy and developing science and technology. In this position the process of educational reform is a complex one. 
Historical Background on Indonesian Educational Reform
Historical Background on Indonesian Educational Reform
The main priority for the educational reform is validation because of the heterogeneous local conditions. Infrastructure and economic development are unevenly distributed. Some interiors especially of eastern islands of Indonesia are still living in the very poor conditions; therefore implementation of unified centralized solutions in educational reform will vary in different areas. 
Historically, prior to the rule of Europeans, education for people throughout the archipelago was relatively simple. Children learned from parents or their elders to gain the practical skills needed to survive. Cultivating fields, weaving cloth, and building houses, cooking, and catching fish are examples of the skills, which had been learned by the children without formal instructions. but, a very highly specialized teaching materiasls  were given to children of the aristocracy to instruct them in dancing, music, religion and traditional leadership. Education mutated from domestic practices for peasantry to the more structured padepokan (non-religious learning center) in parallel with court education for royal families. In the steps  these systems would combined with the Islamic elements shifted as padepokan to become pesantren (Islamic boarding school) and Christian schools. Later on, Indonesianisation was introduced by encouraging the use of the Indonesian language. And This whole legacy of history contributes to the rich contexts of the present educational system.
Educational reforms in Indonesia from 1947 up to 1977 were closely linked to social and political reasons in the reaffirmation of inculcating ideology and beliefs. The first educational planning was designed in 1947, this planning was further revised in 1952. The reform was aimed at meeting the need of a newly independent country and a rural society. Developing patriotism became the priority in this planning. The explanation of natural phenomenas, cultivation of aesthetics and eradication of superstition and violence were among the goals of primary education. The system functioned to inculcate particular values and beliefs thus; the development of science and technology had less concentrated.

The emphasis on national ideology was concentrated in the sixties. The reform was predominated by political disturbance situations. The development of citizenship ideals and values of Pancasila were the main interest in the 1964 curriculum reform. The development of Bahasa Indonesia as a national language and the preservation of Indonesian heterocultures situation were also emphasized. A bias of curriculum materials was recognized not only related to colonial heritage, but also to remedy an impact of Java centrism (Jasin, 1987). Four years later, at the 'new-order' government, the emphasis on ideology was more significant. Developing 'Pancasila identity' became the priority in the curriculum of 1968. Focus of the curriculum was meeting the need of rural society, recognition of the paramount importance of vocational skills and further education.

In 1975, curriculum reform placed the significance of science and technology development. This reform resulted in the 1975 curriculum, which was the most overloaded and overdose, heavy lesson content  and very objective exams oriented. These influenced by instructional design paradigm, which heavily relies on objectives, instruction and evaluation. On the 1984 reform attempted to simplify all of them. The recent reform of 1994 incorporates technology through problem-solving, critical thinking, and inquiry skills into classroom practice. In this reform nine years compulsory basic education is implemented and the importance of human resource development as an economic actor is emphasized. 
B. Contexts of Education Reform 

Through years of effort, Indonesia has achieved almost compulsory of education at the primary level (six years). At present, about 94.4 % (28.3 million) of the age cohort is enrolled in national primary schools. The enrollment number, however, is low for junior secondary school (54.8% or 9.4 million), much lower for senior secondary school (31.5% or 5.3 million), and very low for tertiary education (11.6% or 2.9 million). 

In addition, support and services for early childhood education are still limited. There are about 11.3 million children of 4-6 years of age that need to be supported to have pre-primary education. The delay on early childhood education development would deny the quality improvement of human resources.
Data on special education indicates that support on this group has to be enhanced. Furthermore, data on non-formal education shows that about 17 million people are functional illiterates and about one million of children age 7-12 years is drop outs from primary schools.

The problem of Indonesia National Education System is also evident from a number of recent international studies and comparisons. Indonesia's 12- and 13-year old students has very low performance (Number 32 for science and 34 for mathematic) in Mathematics and Science in the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) that participated by 41 countries. 

C. Reasons for Reform
There are several significant reasons that indicate necessity of education reform. 

First, are education access and its implication for improving quality of life. As it is indicated in the contexts of education reform, Indonesia has not fully accomplished universal education at the primary and the secondary levels even though basic education has been improve to 9 years and made compulsory. The dropout rate for each Primary school is also high. The Government is concerned that children who are not enrolled in schools are not being equipped with the necessary skills and knowledge to be productive citizens in the knowledge age. Education has to support economic growth and promote sense of integration of Indonesian archipelago. In Indonesia, education plays an important role to increase individual income, therefore relevancy of education need to be improved. 

Second, is preparing young generation for the knowledge age. The Government recognizes that education is the most effective long-term solution to achieve national development and stability for the nation, to promote diverse local culture and customs by broadening common core elements in curriculum. In addition, education has to prepare young generation to participate in local, national and global economies. In order to prepare young generation to live in knowledge-based economy and democratic society, the youth should have more engagement in building new skills and attitudes needed for work and a social life in the knowledge. Consequently, reform on learning is crucial for providing a foundation for lifelong learning, character building, problem solving and critical thinking; and developing flexibility to manage change. Curriculum reform has to contribute to the foundations for a skilled workforce confident in its ability to compete in future global markets.

Third, is the need to develop information technology (IT). Up to this moment Indonesia has yet not a clearly insisted on the use of information technology (IT) in its educational policy. The provision of computers and peripherals to schools and IT training for teachers and students are very limited. Because of the knowledge age, IT development has to become a national agenda for education reform despite of our scarcity of resources.

Four, is implementation regional autonomy. Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 22, 1999, concerning Regional Administration stipulates authority of the regions. Article 7, verse 1 of Law No.22, 1999, states that authority of regions includes authority in all governmental sectors, except authority in foreign policy, defense and security, the administration of justice, monetary and fiscal, and religious affair. The consequent of regional autonomy for education is a district-based education planning, management and quality assurances. This is not a simple shift from a centralized to a decentralized educational planning and practices. The government needs to provide a well-prepared and well-informed district-based education system. 

Fifth, is improving madrasahs. The quality of Madrasahs or Islamic religious schools which is part of Indonesian national education system is, in general, lower than regular schools. Besides offering Islamic religious education, madrasahs also provide instruction based-on national curriculum. The national education system has to be reformed in order to include issues on madrasahs education which is held under the Ministry of Religious Affair (MORA).

Finally is moral development. Fundamentally, education is about nurturing the whole person. A holistic education encompasses moral, cognitive, physical, social, and esthetic aspects of personal development. In the knowledge age the students need to learn how to be life-long learners, be independent thinkers and innovators. At the same time, students in Indonesia come from different ethnicity, local languages, cultures, customs and religions. They go to schools and share a common experience of growing up together, studying together, playing together, and singing the national anthem together. Although these are precious life experiences which help in building emotional ties, identification, and a sense of commitment to one another as Indonesian citizens, the student needs to value their differences and learn how to live together with their different interests. The development of moral education also needs to include aspects of clean government and good governance. 


Tuesday, March 28, 2017

Management of School Based Curriculum Change

Management of School Based Curriculum Change.
Curriculum change management and development is an important activity for the improvement of education process and pursuit of school effectiveness. 
Management of School Based Curriculum Change
Management of School Based Curriculum Change
The changing educational environment, the high expectations from the public, the diverse educational needs of students, and the policy reports demand strongly educational change not only at the educational system level but also at the school-based level in local and international contexts. For example, some efforts on curriculum change management have been done at the system of district management and also at the school level, and it has been encouraged strongly in both primary secondary schools and senior high school in Aceh-Indonesia. Curriculum change management as a form of planned change in school of course will meet resistance and its implementation also will be affected by different organizational factors.
The aims of school based curriculum management is to improve  the implementation of curriculum by maximizing the effectiveness of teaching learning trough change in planed content, activities and arrangement of syllabus and lesson plan for educational process. In other hand, we may say that school based curriculum management aims to educate the teachers as the conductor curriculum at school level and other educations’ stakeholders to have good skill and knowledge in implement the curriculum. It is crucial to know what kind of curriculum change management is used by Ministry and District education department in southern Aceh, in order to get the effectiveness of curriculum implementation. 

Marsh and George Willis (1999:228), state that local capacity to implement an innovation can be improved by increasing financial support and the training of teachers as long as the increases are significant and continue over a period of years. McLaughlin 1987 as referenced in Marsh & Willis (1999:228), also reports that the structures and policies within the school and the relative stability and support for teachers can have a mayor effect upon their willingness to implement new curricula.  

As we know a curriculum starts as a plan. It becomes a reality only when teachers implement it with real student in a real classroom. Carefully planning, development and analysis are obviously important to have a good curriculum, but they count for nothing unless teachers have been trained about what they must do in arrange the syllabus and lesson plan to develop the curriculum in their classroom. 

KTSP as new curriculum in Indonesia, of course have a lot of obstacles at the beginning of the implementation of this curriculum. We know the teacher as the one who implement this curriculum at school level is supposed to have new understanding and knowledge about KTSP. In normal, we see that there are some teachers often wish to continue doing what they have been doing-sometime for good reason and sometime for a bad. In fact, teachers are as a key position to reject a new curriculum whether through the assumption of indifferent between new curriculum and previous curriculum, ignorance, and un-readiness to implement it. 

It is one thing to plan and then create new curriculum, another things to have that curriculum formally adopted by a school, and still another things to see that curriculum actually come into widespread use. There is no reason to suppose that teachers should enthusiastically embrace a curriculum that has been decided for them by others, Mars and George Willis (1999:165). The ministry and district education department as the one who in charge to implement new curriculum in Indonesia, should works hard in order to solve this problem. And of-course, they will use appropriate strategies and techniques to widespread this curriculum in order to carry on this curriculum at school level. It would be interesting to study the models and strategies conducted by ministry and district education department in southern Aceh to carry on this curriculum at district to school level in southern Aceh. 

Monday, March 27, 2017

The Principle of Education School Level Curriculum Development

The principle of Education School Level curriculum (KTSP) Development. In the previous I already described the The principle of implementation Education Unit Level Curriculum (KTSP) In Indonesia, here I would like to continue my writing on The principle of Education School Level curriculum (KTSP) Development. 
The principle of Education School Level curriculum
The principle of Education School Level curriculum
The point of Education School Level Curriculum development is not allowed to develop this curriculum freely without refer to the principles of Education School Level Curriculum (KTSP) Development. so the teachers who want to develop this curriculum (KTSP) should refer to the principle of Education School Level Curriculum Development. Here are the following of the principles of Education School Level Curriculum Development as mentioned by Mansnur Muslich (2008:11):
(1) Centered on the potential, progress, needs and interests of learners and their environment
The curriculum was developed based on the principle that learners have a central position to develop the competence to become a man of faith and duty to God Almighty, noble, healthy, knowledgeable, competent, creative, independent, and become citizens of a democratic and responsible. To support the achievement of these goals competency development, the curriculum designed referred to learners' potential, progress, needs and interests of learners and the demands of the environment. It’s means that learning activities is centered on the learner

(2) Diverse and integrated. The curriculum was developed by taking into value the diversity of learners' characteristics, local conditions, levels and types of education, and respect and not discriminating against religious differences, ethnic, cultural, customs, socio-economic status, and gender. The curriculum includes compulsory substance of components of the curriculum, such as local content, and integrated development, and arranged continuity meaningful and appropriate among the elements. 

(3) Responsive to the development of science, technology and art, curriculum was developed based on the Consciousness that science, technology and art developed dynamically. So that, the spirit and content of the curriculum gives students a learning experience to follow and take advantage of developments in science, technology, and art

(4) Relevant to the needs of life. Curriculum development carried out by involving stakeholders to guarantee the relevancy of education to the needs of life, including social life, business world and the world of work. Therefore, the development of personal skills, thinking skills, social skills, academic skills, and vocational skills is essential.

(5) Comprehensive and sustainable. The substance of the curriculum covers all dimensions of competence, the field of scientific study and subjects who are planned and presented continuously in all education level.

(6) Life long learning. The curriculum is directed to the development process, familiarization, and the empowerment of learners for a lifetime. The curriculum reflects the connection between the elements of formal education, and informal with respect to conditions and demands of environment and the direction of the whole human development

(7) Balance between national interests and regional interests. It means a curriculum that was developed suitable to the national education goals, where education which is conducted to create human beings who love the country, has an extensive knowledge to reach the standard of living better, without ignoring the values in their respective areas

Education School Level Curriculum Components 
Here is the following Education School Level Curriculum Components:
  1. The objective of Education School Level Curriculum 
  2. The structure of substance Education School Level 
  3. Education Calendar 
  4. Syllabus and Teaching planning program

However in developing Education School Level Curriculum, we should have referred to the following rules:
  1. The principle of Education School Level Curriculum development,
  2. The Principle of Content Standard 
  3. The principle of syllabus development and stages of its’ development 
  4. The development of teaching completion and assessment and graduation system. 


Saturday, March 25, 2017

The principle of implementation Education Unit Level Curriculum (KTSP) In Indonesia

The principle of implementation Education Unit Level Curriculum (KTSP) In Indonesia. Education Unit Level Curriculum (KTSP) is the newest curriculum in Indonesia, this curriculum as the solution to solve the Indonesia’s education problem. Education Unit Level Curriculum was implemented on 2006/2007, where this curriculum gives more freedom to schools and school committee to develop the school curriculum.  
The principle of implementation Education Unit Level Curriculum (KTSP) In Indonesia
The principle of implementation Education Unit Level Curriculum (KTSP) 
Government of Indonesia (Ministry of National Education) only gives signs legal instrument based on starting from the Law of the Republic of Indonesia number 20 on National Education Standards, the Indonesian Government Regulation Number 19 Year 2003 about National Education System, Regulation of the Minister of National Education No. 22 of 2006 on Content Standards for the Elementary and Secondary Education units, Ministerial Regulation No. 23 Year 2006 about the Graduates Competency Standards for Basic Education and secondary Unit, and Regulation of the Minister of National Education Number 24 Year 2006 About the Implementation of Regulations the Minister of National Education No. 22 Year 2006 and No. 23 Year 2006. However be based on the assumptions, all of Education unit (SD / MI, SMP / MTs, SMA / MA) is expected to develop KTSP as a basis for planning, implementing, and assessing learning for students.
In implementing the States’ policy, the government would have principle of policy that will be a basic foundation that will not be easy for being undermined by some people who have the different perceptions of these policies. The implementation of Curriculum Implementation Unit Level Education (KTSP) in Indonesia be based on the  application of a regularly Government of the Republic  Indonesia Number 20 Year 2003 on National Education system, the Indonesia Government Regulation number 19 Year 2005 on National Education Standards as outlined above.
In implementing Education Unit Level Curriculum in primary and secondary school, the arrangement of curriculum refer to Regulation of the Minister of National Education number 22 year 2006 about Content Standards for Basic Education and secondary Unit, where every school cooperates with the head education division in their district to organize syllabus referred to Content Standard set by Education Standards National Board (BNSP). 

(1) Education Unit Level Curriculum (KTSP)
Curriculum is as basic foundation to determine success or failure of an education in one State. Every nation has their own curriculum refer to their national education’s goal and philosophy, such as in Indonesia where Education Unit Level Curriculum refer to decentralization curriculum give the freedom to every provincial and district government in Indonesia to develop their school curriculum based on their district conditions. 
Education Unit Level Curriculum (KTSP) is the reformation of curriculum based competency (Kurikulum Berasaskan Competensi) that already implemented before Education Unit Level Curriculum. According DEPDIKAS (National Education Department) KTSP is wel known as Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP) adalah Kurikulum operasional yang disusun dan dilaksanakan oleh masing-masing satuan Pendidikan (DEPDIKNAS). Regarding to the syllabus arrangement, the Education Standard National Board (BNSP) already set the guidance of syllabus arrangement to make teacher easy to understand this curriculum. This guidance is supposed to be a reference for all education unit -Primary School (SD), Secondary School (SMP/MTs), Senior High School (SMA/MA)-  and should be implemented in their education unit. It is supposed to show their own specific character to carry out their school education system based on their culture, social, and environment. The national law number 20 year 2003 about National Education System on the explanation mentioned that one of the mandates of national education development strategy is the development and implementation of competency-based curriculum at the learning process, by emphasizing every students to get opportunity to learn to reflect their knowledge, skills and attitudes in their daily life (National Law Number 20 year 2003).  

The principles of the application of the teaching and learning activities (KBM) in Education School Level Curriculum (KTSP) are as stated by Masnur Muslich:
(1) berpusat pada siswa, (2) belajar dengan melakukan, (3) Mengembangkan kemampuan social, (4) mengembangkan keingin tahuan, Imajinasi dan fitrah manusia (5) mengembangkan ketrampilan memecahkan masalah, (6) mengembangkan kreatitivitas siswa, (7) mengembangkan kemampuan mengunakan ilmu dan tehnologi, (8) Menumbuhkan kesadaran sebagai warga Negara yang baik (9) Belajar sepanjang hayat, (10) Perpaduan Kompetensi, kerja sama dan solidaritas (Masnur Muslich, 48:2007)

From the above explanations, students are supposed to be able to increase their understanding of concepts in learning knowledge to be applied in students’ critical thinking, and logic. The principle of Teaching and Learning Activities (KBM) above will achieve maximum results by combining various Methods, Techniques and Medias that allow all the senses are used in accordance with the characteristics of each lesson. Classroom-based assessment is an activity of gathering information about the process and results of student learning conducted by the teacher so that the assessment would be "measuring what is to be measured" from the students. The principle of class-based assessment is inseparable from the teaching and learning activities, using a reference standard, a variety of assessment (tests and non-test), reflecting the competence of students in a comprehensive, competency-oriented, valid, fair, open, continuous, meaningful, educated and conducted by teachers and students. These should be done together because only the teacher who best knows the achievement level of students in the class. After conducting series of assessments in accordance with the principles as mentioned above, then the parents will receive a report communicatively by emphasizing to the competence that has been achieved by children in school.
KTSP Management refers to "unity in diversity of policy in implementation", "unity in policy" marked by the schools using the same instruments of  KTSP, issued by the Ministry of National Education. Diversity in the implementation of the Education School Level Education is marked by diversity syllabus that will be developed by each school according to school characteristics, so many people and agencies that will play a role and responsibility in fulfilling it, such as: schools, teachers, district education division, provincial education offices and National Education Department (DEPDIKNAS). The principle of diversity in the implementation of KTSP showed by every school, and teacher in the field has a responsibility to translate Education School Level Curriculum (KTSP) into a syllabus that will be used in learning process in the classroom. Syllabus made by each school and the teachers were formulated base on school characteristics, the aspect of the school's ability, teacher capability, the ability of students, infrastructure owned by the school and so on.  There is no reference of the format and content in preparing the syllabus, so teachers are given great freedom to appreciate their ability to translate Education School Level Curriculum (KTSP). The formulation of syllabus can be done by involving the experts or the relevant agencies in local areas such as community leaders, government agencies, school committee, board of education, private institutions, companies, and industries. 
In developing education school level curriculum, the center government also formed a network of regional in each region, it is intended to avoid the diversity in interpreting skills and developing education school level curriculum in each region, and this network is hoped to help the head of education division to develop the concepts of education school level curriculum
According to Sutjipto, the forming of curriculum network in each region referred to:

(1) pengembangan kurikulum harus merupakan suatu siklus kontinuitas dan kompleksitas sebagai suatu proses, (2) pengembangan kurikulum harus merupakan sebagai bagian integral dan berkelanjutan dalam kebijakan perencanaan dan pengembangan sistem pendidikan, dan (3) pengembangan kurikulum sebagai fungsi berkelanjutan memerlukan mekanisme permanen secara nasional maupun regional untuk menghadapi berbagai persoalan yang timbul (Sutjipto,200). 

On the other hand, the curriculum managers in each region are supposed to acquire conceptual skills who are able think radically, understanding the concepts and curriculum theories, able to analyze a case based on the theoretical capacity and based on future demands and the community, and have interpersonal skills in order to ménage cooperation to other related agency. As we know curriculum is a plan of study and management about objective education including materials, contents, and teaching methods in order to get the education objective. That’s why curriculum as a plan of teaching is not only consists of course of study, course of content, teaching preparation in syllabus and teaching program, but also curriculum include all the written documents related to the foundation and principle of curriculum development, structure and brochures, as well as the procedures or guidelines of the implementation. 
As the researcher already described above, even though the school and all of education elements have authority to develop their own curriculum, but it is supposed to be referred to the Content Standard (SI) and the Graduation Standard (SKL) set by Education Standard National Board (BNSP) (Soemantrie:2008)

Thursday, February 9, 2017

Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Pelaksanaan Inovasi Pendidikan.

Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Pelaksanaan Inovasi Pendidikaninovasi kurikulum Pendidikan adalah perubahan yang terjadi dibidang pendikan baik melalui intervensi ataupun dengan kesadaran akan perubahan itu sendiri, yang mencakupi tiga aspek dari kurikulum yaitu pendekatan, materi dan nilai. Sebagaimanan kita ketahui bahwa perubahan sebuah kurikulum pendidikan yang dipengaruhi oleh aspek inovasi berhubungan tidak hanya dengan cara orang berperilaku, tetapi juga berhubungan dengan cara mereka berpikir dalam menangani/menjawab berbagai isu-isu tertentu, perubahan tersebut tidak akan selalu bersifat kuantitatif, tetapi juga bisa bersifat kualitatif (Kennedy, 1988). Manajemen pengembangan kurikulum pendidikan membutuhkan keterampilan dalam mengatur dan mengorganisasi sumber materi, keahlian dalam manajemen perubahan kurikulum.
Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Pelaksanaan Inovasi
Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Pelaksanaan Inovasi

Para peneliti inovasi kurikulum umumnya sepakat bahwa perencanaan yang efektif sangat penting jika upaya implementasi dari inoovasi kurikulum tersebut dapat berjalan dengan sukses. Semua aspek perencanaan yang dibahas dalam perencanaan inovasi kurikulum harus berorientasi ke masa depan dan kesemuanyya tersebut meski terencana dengan rapi  (Michaletz, (1985 sebagai referensi dalam Henrichsen, 1989). Membuat perubahan dari sistem pendidikan tersebut membutuhkan masa yang panjang, kompleks, dan sulit dan sering memimbulkan konflik dengan yang diakibatkan oleh rintangan dan masalah yang tak terduga ( Fullan, 1982). Hal ini karena setiap inovasi adalah bagian dari beberapa sistem dan sub-sistem dan daerah-daerah yang pada pandangan pertama tampaknya memiliki sedikit kepentingan untuk dilibatkan dari proses inovasi pendidikan itu sendiri. Hal ini dapat mulai memiliki pengaruh yang besar terhadap tingkat penerima/sasaran dari  dari inovasi tersebut (Kennedy, 1987).
Hal ini menjadi semakin jelas bahwa upaya perubahan ini meliputi batas-batas keberagaman budaya, daerah, agama dan dapat menjadi faktor penentu untuk diterima ataupun tidaknya inovasi pendidikan tersebut. Kompatibilitas melibatkan sejauh mana potensi innovasi tersebut mampu mengadopsi samua keberagaman yang ada secara  konsisten dengan tetap melihat dan merujuk pada nilai-nilai yang ada dari pengalaman masa lalu' Henrichsen, (1989). Selain itu, Henrichsen juga menunjukkan bahwa ada dua jenis kompatibilitas yang diperlukan dalam proses pelaksanaan innovasi kurikulum pendidikan, yaitu: (i) kompatibilitas antara inovasi dan penggunanya, dan (ii) kompatibilitas antara sistem sumber daya dan sistem pengguna. Potensi ketidaksesuaian antara komponen-komponen ini akan terlihat. 

Mengamati bahwa bagaimanapun menguntungkan suatu inovasi pendidikan mungkin muncul dari perancangnya, nilai-nilai dan sejarah budaya sekitarnya akan menjadi pertimbangan serius sebelum bergerak maju dengan reformasi. Ada hampir kesepakatan bulat bahwa sistem pendidikan pada dasarnya merupakan perkembangan organik sejarah unik masyarakat dan budaya (Beauchamp, 1986, seperti yang disebutkan dalam Henrichsen, 1989). Oleh karena itu, sebagai Henrichsen benar menunjukkan, sejarah dan budaya harus menjadi latar belakang terhadap yang reformasi harus berusaha dan dasar-dasar yang di atasnya kampanye perubahan harus membangun. Untuk satu hal, filsafat pendidikan yang berlaku dari institusi tuan rumah atau negara-apakah egaliter atau elitis, otoriter atau partisipatif, berorientasi produk atau mendukung proses, pengetahuan-atau keterampilan berorientasi, mendorong pelajar, dan itu akan sangat mempengaruhi pelaksanaan ( Maley, 1984: 92). Selain itu, di banyak negara Asia, tekanan ujian, yang membentuk instrumen yang kuat dari sistem pendidikan, dapat memfasilitasi atau menghambat perubahan. Morris: 1985, (seperti yang disebutkan dalam Karavas-Doukas, 1998: 41) memberikan penjelasan tentang guru sekolah menengah di Hong Kong yang menolak sebuah inovasi menekankan gaya heuristik proses pembelajaran meskipun mengekspresikan sikap yang menguntungkan ke arah itu karena pendekatan baru tidak mengaktifkan guru untuk menutupi examanition berdasarkan silabus. Guru menyadari bahwa pendekatan baru untuk menjadi sepenuhnya disfungsional karena diperlukan mereka untuk mengabaikan harapan murid mereka, kepala sekolah dan rekan.

Tujuan dasar dari semua inovasi pendidikan adalah untuk membawa perbaikan dalam praktek kelas dan meningkatkan pembelajaran siswa. Namun, dalam upaya lintas-budaya di inovasi, hal itu tidak dapat diasumsikan bahwa siswa akan menerima inovasi asing tanpa bertanya atau merasa nyaman menggunakannya jika tidak cocok dengan gaya belajar 'mereka (Henrichsen, 1989: 90-91). Berdasarkan pengalamannya ruang kelas Asia, Maley menyajikan bahwa, profil yang paling umum dari harapan pembelajar 'sebagai berikut: "peserta didik yang mengharapkan guru untuk mengambil peran lebih besar di dalam kelas, yang berharap untuk memiliki buku dan belajar itu, yang percaya bahwa harus ada satu metode terbaik untuk digunakan yang akan ajaib (dan realistis cepat) membawa mereka ke tingkat tertinggi kompetensi, yang akan berharap untuk bekerja berjam-jam di luar kelas tetapi dalam mode menghafal agak tradisional, dan yang mungkin mengharapkan konten program yang sangat berbeda dari yang mereka ditawarkan "(Maley, 1984: 95).

Demikian pula, sedangkan guru merupakan faktor kunci dari keberhasilan pelaksanaan perubahan pendidikan, mereka diketahui telah didirikan, keyakinan tentang pengajaran dan pembelajaran performing dan peran guru dan peserta didik di kelas yang bercokol. Keyakinan ini atau 'teori' memandu perilaku penilaian, interpretasi dan kelas mereka. Jika ada ketidaksesuaian ada antara filsafat proyek inovasi dan teori-teori guru, guru akan cenderung menafsirkan informasi baru dalam terang teori yang ada dan akan cenderung untuk menerjemahkan ide-ide innovatory untuk menyesuaikan diri dengan praktek yang ada. resistensi guru sehingga dapat membentuk penghalang utama untuk inovasi pendidikan.

Bahkan lebih penting adalah mengembangkan perspektif berubah, jika perubahan yang nyata adalah untuk terjadi. Karavas-Doukas (1998: 38) katakan, "Terlepas dari mengakrabkan guru dengan implikasi teoritis dan praktis dari inovasi tertentu, pelatihan guru pada akhirnya harus berusaha untuk membuat guru inovator di kanan mereka sendiri." Difusi sastra inovasi memegang pengembangan 'kepemilikan' terhadap inovasi, yaitu, sejauh mana peserta merasa bahwa inovasi 'milik' mereka, sebagai faktor penting untuk keberhasilannya. Hal ini hanya dapat datang dari rasa pengalaman kepuasan dan pemberdayaan berasal dari langsung berpartisipasi dalam kegiatan proyek. Dari sudut pandang ini, maka, pelatihan guru karena secara definisi lain-diatur hanya dapat memberdayakan untuk trainee jika mengandung dalam dirinya sendiri benih self-regulation. Dia juga menunjukkan bahwa guru diberikan kesempatan yang luas untuk bereksperimen dengan ide-ide baru dan menjadi terampil dan percaya diri dalam menggunakan mereka. Dia mengutip Fullan dan Steigelbauer seperti yang disebutkan dalam Karavas-Doukas, secara ringkas mengatakan:

'Reformasi pendidikan tidak akan berarti apa-apa sampai guru menjadi simultan dan mulus penyelidikan berorientasi, terampil, reflektif, dan profesional kolaboratif. Ini adalah agenda inti untuk pendidikan guru, dan kunci untuk mewujudkan reformasi yang efektif bermakna'

Tampaknya satu set yang sangat menuntut harapan untuk lulus palung masalah inovasi samping untuk mendidik para guru, seperti kelas besar, berlebihan, kurangnya waktu dan sumber daya materi, kurangnya dukungan kelembagaan dan infrastruktur, dan sebagainya. Hal ini berlaku terutama guru yang bekerja di banyak konteks Asia Asia dan Tenggara.

Monday, January 30, 2017

KTSP dalam Konsep School Based Curriculum Development

KTSP dalam Konsep School Based Curriculum Development. Dalam posting sebelumnya saya sudah memberi deskripsi School Based Currculum Development, sekarang saya ingin mengambarkan konsep Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP) di Indonesia dalam konsep SBCD. Kita tahu jika Kurikulum adalah sebagai landasan dasar untuk menentukan keberhasilan atau kegagalan pendidikan dalam satu Negara. Setiap bangsa memiliki 'kurikulum mereka sendiri dengan mengacu pada sistem pendidikan nasional mereka, disamping tujuan pendidikan dan philosphy bangsa. Seperti di Indonesia di mana Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan (KTSP) mengacu pada bentuk desentralisasi kurikulum yang memberikan kebebasan kepada setiap pemerintah provinsi dan kabupaten untuk mengembangkan kurikulum sekolah mereka berdasarkan kondisi distrik mereka untuk mendapatkan kapasitas dalam memberikan kontribusi kesejahteraan dan produktivitas ekonomi nasional. Brady & Kennedy Menyebutkan:
KTSP dalam Konsep School Bacsed Curriculum Development
KTSP dalam Konsep School Bacsed Curriculum Development

Pemerintah memiliki kepentingan yang sebagian besar meskipun tidak secara eksklusif dalam mengatur prekonomian. Pertumbuhan ekonomi dan pembangunan telah menjadi perhatian utama pemerintah karena disebabkan oleh keprihatinan mereka. Sifat kurikulum sekolah akan menentukan pengetahuan dan keterampilan warga negara di masa depan karena kapasitas mereka sangat diperlukan untuk berkontribusi terhadap perekonomian negara-negara 'dengan cara yang lebih produktif. Tentu saja, pemerintah lebih menekankan konsep pendidikan daripada ekonomi. Secara umum, negara demokratis, pemerintah ingin melihat sebuah komunitas yang yang manpu mengusai sosial kohesif, politik kohesif, maju dari segi tehnologi, toleran dan adil. Kurikulum dapat memberikan kontribusi yang banyak untuk mencapai semua tujuan ini”. (L Brady & K Kennedy,: 1999: 7)


Dalam konteks saat ini inisiatif pendidikan di Indonesia, KTSP tidak berarti memberi wewenang kepada setiap daerah dalam mengembangkan kurikulum secara beasa dan tanpa rujukan utama. Sebaliknya, pemerintah pusat memberikan acuan dasar yaitu stadar pendidikan nasioanl berupa satndar isi dan standar lulusan, yang dikeluarkan oleh Badan Nasional StandarPendidikan (BNSP) dalam merancang kurikulum sekolah. Selain itu guru memberikan lebih banyak kebebasan dalam merancang, merencanakan silabus dan rencana pelajaran, dan menciptakan pengalaman pendidikan, memilih dan mengadaptasi materi kurikulum dalam keadaan situasi tertentu dan kebutuhan dengan mengacu pada standar yang disebutkan di atas

Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP) adalah pengembangan Kurikulum berbasis Kompetensi. KTSP diluncurkan pada tahun 2006 oleh Badan Nasional StandarPendidikan  (BNSP) sebagai lembaga kurikulum nasional di Indonesia. Kurikulum 2006 'bernama KTSP', yang dikembangkan oleh sekolah sebagai satuan pendidikan, dan mengacu pada Standar Nasional Pendidikan, yang menekankan pada standar isi dan standar kelulusan sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional nomor 22 dan 23, 2006. kurikulum Sekolah harus sejalan dengan standar isi dan standar kelulusan, dan pedoman standar pengembangan diatur oleh Badan Nasional Standar Pendidikan  (BNSP) dengan prinsip-prinsip berikut; Hal ini terpusat pada potensi, perkembangan dan kebutuhan peserta didik dan lingkungannya, keragaman dan integritas, tanggap dengan perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan, teknologi dan seni, yang relevan dengan kebutuhan kehidupan, holistik dan kontinuitas, belajar seumur hidup, menjadi keseimbangan Nasional dan kepentingan Daerah. 

Pada prinsipnya, KTSP merupakan kurikulum operasional yang dirancang dan dilaksanakan di masing-masing satuan pendidikan. KTSP didasarkan pada tujuan pendidikan disetiap tingkat satuan pendidikan, struktur dan isi kurikulum, kalender pendidikan, dan silabus (BNSP, 2006: 5). Ini berarti bahwa sekolah dan otoritas guru menentukan keberhasilan tujuan pendidikan di tingkat sekolah.

Pada kata lain, guru memiliki tugas pada: (1) membangun dan merumuskan tujuan yang tepat, (2) memilih dan membangun sumber daya yang tepat pelajaran sesuai dengan fase kebutuhan, kepentingan dan perkembangan anak, (3) memilih metode dan media pembelajaran yang bervariasi, (4) dan membangun program pembelajarn dan evaluasi yang tepat. Sebuah kurikulum dibuat secara sistematis dan detail, yang akan memudahkan guru pada tahap pelaksanaannya. Dalam hal ini, sekolah memiliki kewenangan untuk mengembangkan kurikulum sesuai dengan kemampuan dan kebutuhan. KTSP adalah kebijakan umum yang ditetapkan  oleh Badan Nasional Standar Pendidikan yang digunakan sebagai dasar pertimbangan sekolah dalam merancang kurikulum yang berkualitas kondusif untuk belajar murid yang efektif. Sekolah didorong untuk mengadaptasi Standar Nasional Kurikulum sesuai konteks yang unik mereka. Ketika merancang KTSP, sekolah disarankan untuk mengamati dari dekat arah dan persyaratan yang ditetapkan oleh Badan Pengembangan Kurikulum dengan merujuk pada  dokumen kurikulum resmi. Berdasarkan analisis yang cermat dan kebutuhan peserta didik, kemampuan dan minat sekolah 'ekologi kontek, gaya kepemimpinan kepala sekolah dan manajemen sekolah, serta kesiapan guru, sekolah perlu menggunakan pengajaran yang paling tepat, strategi pembelajaran dan penilaian disamping penggunaan berbagai bahan pembelajaran untuk mengintegrasikan siklus penilaian proses belajar-mengajar dalam KTSP. Hal ini penting untuk memastikan bahwa semua murid memiliki kesempatan yang sama untuk berpartisipasi dan memporoleh pengalaman belajar yang kaya yang bertujuan untuk membangun manusia seutuhnya dan belajar sepanjang hayat. Bolstad (2004), menyatakan penting untuk mengenali bahwa "ruang operasional" untuk SBCD pada waktu tertentu/tempat sangat dipengaruhi oleh bentuk yang lebih luas dari sistem pendidikan, termasuk struktur dan struktur kurikulum Nasional, tingkat sentralisasi/desentralisasi, pengambilan keputusan sekolah, penilaian sekolah dan persyaratan pelaporan, peran yang diharapkan dari guru dalam pengembangan kurikulum sekolah, dan peran yang diharapkan atau potensi manusia dalam pengembangan kurikulum tersebut.