Wednesday, May 10, 2017

The Stages of Syllabus Development.

The Stages of Syllabus Development
Here are the following stages of syllabus development: 

1. Assessing standards-competence and based-competence.
In accessing competency standard and based-competency as mentioned in Content standard is by taking account to the following aspects:
a. The sequence is based on the hierarchy of materials concepts and the level of difficulty of material. 
b. Correlated  between the standard-competence and based-competence within the subjects 
c. Correlated between the standard-competence and based-competence among the lessons.

The Stages of Syllabus Development.
The Stages of Syllabus Development

2. Identify the basic material.
In identifying the basic materials in order to support the achievement of based-competence should pay attention on the following aspects: 
a. The potential of the students,
b. The relevancy of regions’ characteristics,
c. The development of physicals, intellectuals, emotional, socials, and spiritual of the students, 
d. Beneficial to students,
e. The structure of knowledge
f. Actuality, depth, and flexibilities of materials,
g. Relevant to the students’ need and environment,
h. Time allocation 
3. Developing learning activity.
Learning activity is designed to give learning experience including mental and physical process trough interaction among the students, teachers, environment, and learning resources in order to achieve based-competence. The learning experience is able to be realized by using the variation of learning approach and focus on the students. 
Here are the following aspects that should be focused in developing learning activities:
a. The learning activity is designed to help the teachers, so teachers are able to implement learning activity professionally.
b. The learning activity includes the lists of activities that must be conducted by teachers to achieve based-competence.
c. Determining the sequences of learning activities must be related to the hierarchy of material concepts.
d. The formulation of explanation in learning activities at least containing two aspects of identities that reflected the management of students’ learning experience, it include teaching activities and teaching materials.

4. Formulation the indicator of competence-attainment   
Indicator is as a sign of competence attainment, it is marked by the behavior changing that could be measured, and it includes attitudes, knowledges, and skills.  Indicator is developed in accordance with the characteristic of students, subject materials, education units, and region potentials. It is formulated in operational word, measurable, and observable.   Indicator used as a principle in arranging evaluations’ tools. 


5. Determination of types of assessment
Assessment of the based-competency achievement of learners is based on indicators. Assessment carried out by using tests and non-test in forms of written or spoken, observation of performance, attitude measurement, assessment of work tasks, projects and/or products, the use of portfolios, and self-assessment.
Assessment is a series of activities to obtain, analyze, and interpret data about the process and learning outcomes of students, it is carried out systematically and continuously, so it will be meaningful information in decision-making.

Here are the following aspects that should be considered in assessment:
a. Assessment aimed to measure the achievement of competence.
b. Assessment using the reference criteria, it is based on what students can do after taking the learning process, and not determine one's position in their group.
c. Planned system is a system of continuous assessment. Sustainable meant that all indicators are billed, then the results were analyzed to determine the basic competencies that have been achieved and that have not, and to know the difficulties of students.
d. Assessment results are analyzed to determine the follow-up. The further action is meant the improvement of learning process, remedy program for students who achieve competence below the criteria of completeness, and enrichment programs for students who have achieved the criteria for completeness.
e. Assessment system should be concord with the learning experience in the learning process. For example, if learning uses field observations approach, so that the evaluation should be given to the process (process skills) such as interviewing techniques, and products/results of field observations as the required information.

6. Determination of time allocation. 
Determining the time allocation in each of basic competences is based on the effective weeks and subject time allocation by considering number of the basic competences, flexibilities, difficulties level, the depth materials, and the importance of based-competency. The Allocation of time that is specified in the syllabus is an estimate of the average time to master the basic competencies that is needed by diversity of learners.
Based on the criteria above, actually there are two kinds of format syllabus, event the format of syllabus is bit different but the content is the same.

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