The principle of implementation Education Unit Level Curriculum (KTSP) In Indonesia. Education Unit Level Curriculum (KTSP) is the newest curriculum in Indonesia, this curriculum as the solution to solve the Indonesia’s education problem. Education Unit Level Curriculum was implemented on 2006/2007, where this curriculum gives more freedom to schools and school committee to develop the school curriculum.
|The principle of implementation Education Unit Level Curriculum (KTSP)|
Government of Indonesia (Ministry of National Education) only gives signs legal instrument based on starting from the Law of the Republic of Indonesia number 20 on National Education Standards, the Indonesian Government Regulation Number 19 Year 2003 about National Education System, Regulation of the Minister of National Education No. 22 of 2006 on Content Standards for the Elementary and Secondary Education units, Ministerial Regulation No. 23 Year 2006 about the Graduates Competency Standards for Basic Education and secondary Unit, and Regulation of the Minister of National Education Number 24 Year 2006 About the Implementation of Regulations the Minister of National Education No. 22 Year 2006 and No. 23 Year 2006. However be based on the assumptions, all of Education unit (SD / MI, SMP / MTs, SMA / MA) is expected to develop KTSP as a basis for planning, implementing, and assessing learning for students.
(Read KTSP As A form of School Based Curriculum Development)
(Read School Based Curriculum Assesement in Indonesia)
In implementing the States’ policy, the government would have principle of policy that will be a basic foundation that will not be easy for being undermined by some people who have the different perceptions of these policies. The implementation of Curriculum Implementation Unit Level Education (KTSP) in Indonesia be based on the application of a regularly Government of the Republic Indonesia Number 20 Year 2003 on National Education system, the Indonesia Government Regulation number 19 Year 2005 on National Education Standards as outlined above.
In implementing Education Unit Level Curriculum in primary and secondary school, the arrangement of curriculum refer to Regulation of the Minister of National Education number 22 year 2006 about Content Standards for Basic Education and secondary Unit, where every school cooperates with the head education division in their district to organize syllabus referred to Content Standard set by Education Standards National Board (BNSP).
(1) Education Unit Level Curriculum (KTSP)
Curriculum is as basic foundation to determine success or failure of an education in one State. Every nation has their own curriculum refer to their national education’s goal and philosophy, such as in Indonesia where Education Unit Level Curriculum refer to decentralization curriculum give the freedom to every provincial and district government in Indonesia to develop their school curriculum based on their district conditions.
Education Unit Level Curriculum (KTSP) is the reformation of curriculum based competency (Kurikulum Berasaskan Competensi) that already implemented before Education Unit Level Curriculum. According DEPDIKAS (National Education Department) KTSP is wel known as Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP) adalah Kurikulum operasional yang disusun dan dilaksanakan oleh masing-masing satuan Pendidikan (DEPDIKNAS). Regarding to the syllabus arrangement, the Education Standard National Board (BNSP) already set the guidance of syllabus arrangement to make teacher easy to understand this curriculum. This guidance is supposed to be a reference for all education unit -Primary School (SD), Secondary School (SMP/MTs), Senior High School (SMA/MA)- and should be implemented in their education unit. It is supposed to show their own specific character to carry out their school education system based on their culture, social, and environment. The national law number 20 year 2003 about National Education System on the explanation mentioned that one of the mandates of national education development strategy is the development and implementation of competency-based curriculum at the learning process, by emphasizing every students to get opportunity to learn to reflect their knowledge, skills and attitudes in their daily life (National Law Number 20 year 2003).
The principles of the application of the teaching and learning activities (KBM) in Education School Level Curriculum (KTSP) are as stated by Masnur Muslich:
(1) berpusat pada siswa, (2) belajar dengan melakukan, (3) Mengembangkan kemampuan social, (4) mengembangkan keingin tahuan, Imajinasi dan fitrah manusia (5) mengembangkan ketrampilan memecahkan masalah, (6) mengembangkan kreatitivitas siswa, (7) mengembangkan kemampuan mengunakan ilmu dan tehnologi, (8) Menumbuhkan kesadaran sebagai warga Negara yang baik (9) Belajar sepanjang hayat, (10) Perpaduan Kompetensi, kerja sama dan solidaritas (Masnur Muslich, 48:2007)
From the above explanations, students are supposed to be able to increase their understanding of concepts in learning knowledge to be applied in students’ critical thinking, and logic. The principle of Teaching and Learning Activities (KBM) above will achieve maximum results by combining various Methods, Techniques and Medias that allow all the senses are used in accordance with the characteristics of each lesson. Classroom-based assessment is an activity of gathering information about the process and results of student learning conducted by the teacher so that the assessment would be "measuring what is to be measured" from the students. The principle of class-based assessment is inseparable from the teaching and learning activities, using a reference standard, a variety of assessment (tests and non-test), reflecting the competence of students in a comprehensive, competency-oriented, valid, fair, open, continuous, meaningful, educated and conducted by teachers and students. These should be done together because only the teacher who best knows the achievement level of students in the class. After conducting series of assessments in accordance with the principles as mentioned above, then the parents will receive a report communicatively by emphasizing to the competence that has been achieved by children in school.
KTSP Management refers to "unity in diversity of policy in implementation", "unity in policy" marked by the schools using the same instruments of KTSP, issued by the Ministry of National Education. Diversity in the implementation of the Education School Level Education is marked by diversity syllabus that will be developed by each school according to school characteristics, so many people and agencies that will play a role and responsibility in fulfilling it, such as: schools, teachers, district education division, provincial education offices and National Education Department (DEPDIKNAS). The principle of diversity in the implementation of KTSP showed by every school, and teacher in the field has a responsibility to translate Education School Level Curriculum (KTSP) into a syllabus that will be used in learning process in the classroom. Syllabus made by each school and the teachers were formulated base on school characteristics, the aspect of the school's ability, teacher capability, the ability of students, infrastructure owned by the school and so on. There is no reference of the format and content in preparing the syllabus, so teachers are given great freedom to appreciate their ability to translate Education School Level Curriculum (KTSP). The formulation of syllabus can be done by involving the experts or the relevant agencies in local areas such as community leaders, government agencies, school committee, board of education, private institutions, companies, and industries.
In developing education school level curriculum, the center government also formed a network of regional in each region, it is intended to avoid the diversity in interpreting skills and developing education school level curriculum in each region, and this network is hoped to help the head of education division to develop the concepts of education school level curriculum
According to Sutjipto, the forming of curriculum network in each region referred to:
(1) pengembangan kurikulum harus merupakan suatu siklus kontinuitas dan kompleksitas sebagai suatu proses, (2) pengembangan kurikulum harus merupakan sebagai bagian integral dan berkelanjutan dalam kebijakan perencanaan dan pengembangan sistem pendidikan, dan (3) pengembangan kurikulum sebagai fungsi berkelanjutan memerlukan mekanisme permanen secara nasional maupun regional untuk menghadapi berbagai persoalan yang timbul (Sutjipto,200).
On the other hand, the curriculum managers in each region are supposed to acquire conceptual skills who are able think radically, understanding the concepts and curriculum theories, able to analyze a case based on the theoretical capacity and based on future demands and the community, and have interpersonal skills in order to ménage cooperation to other related agency. As we know curriculum is a plan of study and management about objective education including materials, contents, and teaching methods in order to get the education objective. That’s why curriculum as a plan of teaching is not only consists of course of study, course of content, teaching preparation in syllabus and teaching program, but also curriculum include all the written documents related to the foundation and principle of curriculum development, structure and brochures, as well as the procedures or guidelines of the implementation.
As the researcher already described above, even though the school and all of education elements have authority to develop their own curriculum, but it is supposed to be referred to the Content Standard (SI) and the Graduation Standard (SKL) set by Education Standard National Board (BNSP) (Soemantrie:2008)