Wednesday, October 26, 2016

Historical Roots Of School Based Curriculum Development

HISTORICAL ROOTS OF SCHOOL BASED CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT. 
Curriculum as word is not recent invention. It does not simply refer to what is taught in school. It is more complex, a word from antiquity that has involved in meaning. Kenneth T Henson states that the terms of curriculum comes from a Latin word meaning “racecourse” when used in education, curriculum has many meaning. Traditionally, the word has meant a list of course, but through the years the terms has expended, taking on several additional meaning (Kenneth T Henson, 1995:4). 


We known one of the reason why education need improve and change dynamically because the education in the world always challenge with the progression of knowledge and the problem education in world. Nowadays we see that there are many countries in the world have many problems in progressing their own educational system, they trying to manage education which is able to be accessed easily by students. They manage the education research/project in order to know the basic problem in order to increase their education, and tried to back to roots problem in education, where the school need freedom, access to materials, resources, strategies, and involved in all activity of education. 

We know that the school is not only belonging to government but community also have big role in managing the education system because the knowledge is passed to members of societies. So the curriculum is not only doing the mandate of the government in the top level by ignoring the competency of teacher in the class room, where the teacher is just focus on doing the instruction from the top level without caring the students, society and environments’ need. The curriculum in modern era is permitted the teacher to be more creative in using their own intellectual to manage the school curriculum by taking account the society, a students and environment need. This is not meant that only teacher who has responsible to arrange the curriculum but teacher is only one element that should be involved in managing curriculum. 

School based curriculum is essentially a teachers-initiated grass root phenomenon, and it’s likely to survive in this pure form regardless of political and economic context. In each country SBCD has grown within a different cultural tradition, and it is therefore difficult to point out to a particular time period when it began, because there is no many documents regarding to this curriculum. 

As general rule, we found significantly less literature about SBCD written during the last 10 years. The exception to this was a few articles about SBCD in Hong Kong, China, Japan, and Taiwan written since 2000. The problem may be caused by many document was not documented and also many literature that was not written in English. However during the 1960s there were growing advocacy Then to find the real data regarding the SBCD, educationalist and system managers operating tone collect the documents at least in English speaking countries, and this is the history of SBCD begin. Collin Mash, Christopher Day & Lynne Hanna (1990:18)

It was not until well after World War II that various moves were made in educational circles which might be constructed as being related to SBCD. The Plowden report release in UK in 1967 (central Advisory Council for education, 1967), advocated child centered approaches and informal learning practice in primary school. This approach became popularized as open education and open learning in many western countries and especially in Australia. So in order to get a clear description about the historical of School Based Curriculum Development, let see the description about the School Based Curriculum in USA.  

In America, the reformation in education sector during ninetieth century, but there is no evident to justify that America already implement this curriculum at the beginning of ninetieth century. However the various terms of curriculum related to the School Based Curriculum Development already used in developing curricula, such as “child-central” approach, progressive education, curriculum reform, school improvement, and school effectiveness. 

According to Collin Mash, Christopher Day & Lynne Hanna, (1990:15) since the mid-1970s there has been a major effort at all level to bring about school improvement/school effectiveness in USA, school level group has been, and continue to be, involved in SBCD activities. The implementation of School Based Curriculum in America is not totally the same among the district level, because the different location and the development of education. 

Marsh as referenced in Collin Mash, Christopher Day & Lynne Hanna (1950:23), said, it is not possible to provide an overall judgment about current levels of SBCD occurring in the USA because of the enormous diversity occurring at the district and states levels. However, some states, such as California and Florida, do appear to be encouraging SBCD development quite strongly. For example, the school improvement project (SIP) in California has provided individual schools with state funding for the creation of school site council to plan and implement local change over periods of two to three years.

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